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How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

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1. Overview

A kiosk or smart display is a full-screen application running on a secure device, with the sole purpose of driving that display to provide specific information or a particular function at that location.

Ubuntu is popular for these applications thanks to its excellent security track record and widespread developer familiarity. We compiled this guide to a reference kiosk architecture to enable anybody, anywhere to make a highly secure kiosk using any of the popular application display frameworks – HTML5/web, X11, or native Wayland.

Since these devices are often left unattended for long periods of time, and run in sensitive environments like airports, hospitals and public areas we also want to raise the bar on security and update management. So this tutorial includes the option to use Ubuntu Core, which is a minimal, self-updating OS for your application to run on.

You can also integrate touchscreen or keyboard capabilities, which enables this tutorial to serve for industrial control interfaces and any environment where user feedback is needed.

What you’ll learn

How to create a graphical kiosk on Ubuntu Core running a single full-screen demonstration application. We’ll also discuss the basic architecture and its security benefits.

What you’ll need

  • An Ubuntu desktop running any current release of Ubuntu or an Ubuntu Virtual Machine on another OS.
  • A ‘Target Device’ from one of the following:
    • A device running Ubuntu Core.
      This guide shows you how to set up a supported device. If there’s no supported image that fits your needs you can create your own core image.
    • Using a Virtual Machine (VM) You don’t need to have a physical “Target Device”, you can follow the tutorial with Ubuntu Core in a VM. This guide shows you how to set up an Ubuntu Core VM.
    • Using Ubuntu Classic You don’t have to use Ubuntu Core, you can use also a “Target Device” with Ubuntu Classic. Read this guide to understand how to run kiosk snaps on your desktop, as the particular details won’t be repeated here.

2. Basic infrastructure

We use Wayland as the primary display interface. We will use Mir to manage the display and support connections from Wayland clients. Snapd will confine the applications and enable Wayland protocol interactions through Mir, securely.

For your display application you have a number of choices, it could be a simple web interface, a native Wayland application, or even a traditional X11 application. Regardless of what your application uses, under the hood we always use Wayland and Mir for secure display management and graphics abstractions. A native Wayland application can talk to that directly without any intermediate translation layer. If your application is a web interface, or an X11 application, then we will show you how to wrap it up to sit on top of Wayland without modifying the application itself to become Wayland compatible.

Your graphics approach largely depends on the toolkit your application uses:

  1. GTK3/4 and Qt5 – have native support for Wayland This is the simplest case, as the application can talk Wayland to Mir directly.
  2. GTK2, Qt4, Java – do not have Wayland support This is a more complex case, as the toolkits require a legacy X11 server to function. To enable these applications we will embed a tiny X11 server into your application package, which translates X11 calls to Wayland ones.
  3. Electron, HTML5, Chromium – do not have Wayland support We will need to use the embedded browser together with a tiny embedded X11 server to handle the translation.

Where we need an X11 server it is much more secure to embed it in the confined snap environment together with the application. The X11 protocol was not designed with security in mind and a malicious application connected to an X11 server can obtain information from other running X11 applications. For instance X11 servers do not protect sensitive information like keystrokes between applications using them. To avoid this, each snapped X11 application should have its own embedded X11 server (Xwayland) which then talks Wayland – a far more secure protocol.

How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

One additional detail to note is how a Wayland client connects to a Wayland server. This is done via Wayland sockets, which need to be shared between client (your app) and server (ubuntu-frame). Snapd has robust and secure ways to provide this kind of communication channel between two snap applications, called ‘interfaces’.

Snap interfaces

Snapd provides a large number of interfaces, permitting access to everything from hardware to other services on the system. The entire list is available here:

You can use the snap interfaces command to list the interfaces available on your system, the slots providing them and the plugs consuming them.

For our kiosk application, we will need to plug into at a very minimum the following interfaces:

  • opengl – access to OpenGL hardware
  • wayland – allows sharing Wayland sockets between server and client

Using snapd interfaces your app can securely connect to Mir using the Wayland protocol and yet remain fully confined.

3. Demonstration kiosk on Ubuntu Core

This step assumes you have set up your device or VM and have SSHed into it. If you have not done this please see the guilds referenced above in “What you’ll need”.

Install the “ubuntu-frame” snap:

Now you should have a graduated grey screen.

How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

Let’s install a web kiosk snap to try it out:

and you should see something like this:

How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

The website can be changed using the “url” snap configuration option:

How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

4. Building your own kiosk Snap

As mentioned above, the approach to building a kiosk snap from your application depends on whether your application has native support for Wayland (e.g. uses GTK3/4, Qt5 or SDL2), is Electron/HTML5 based, or not (everything else).

We have written up a series of tutorials to address each of these possibilities. We recommend working through the tutorials in order, as each builds upon the knowledge gained from the previous. But for the impatient you can jump directly to the materials that interests you here:

You may want to prevent changes from being made on your perfectly setup Ubuntu computer, but locking down user accounts gives annoying error messages and prevents temporary changes. With Gofris, you can accomplish this without complicated hard drive imaging.

Locked-Down Changes

It takes time to get the perfect installation and setup of you computer, especially on Linux systems where virtually every aspect of the OS can be tweaked. If you’re like me, you want to keep this pristine. You could image your hard drive and restore every so often, but then you’d have to update from scratch, and it takes a lot of time. You can lock down your user accounts to prevent changes, but then you can’t make temporary ones when you need to. And these problems are where Gofris comes in.

Gofris is a tool that seamlessly locks your system down. Once enabled, it’ll remember the files in your home directory, system configurations, user interface tweaks, bookmarks, and browser sessions. After every single restart, it’ll restore it like new, but without taking time to restore from an image. At the same time, you can install software and perform system updates with those changes carrying through from restart to restart. It works well for setting up a Guest-mode for your computer, or turning your computer into a “public” kiosk.

Installation

As always, we love command-line installation.

We need to add the above repository to install properly. Pop open a terminal and enter the following command:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:tldm217/gofris

Then update your sources:

And finally, we can install the proper English-language package:

Be sure the package ends in an “-en” because the default package is in Indonesian. All done! Now, you can launch Gofris by going to Applications > System Tools > GOFRIS.

How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

If things aren’t configured just right, then now is the time to do it.

Locking and Unlocking

Click on the Gofris icon.

How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

You have to choice of locking the current user, another specific user, or all users. Since I’m on a multi-user system, I locked just my account. Gofris will ask for a password so enter it, and you’ll be notified that you need to restart for the changes to take effect.

And After a Restart…

Here’s a shot of before I messed up my system.

How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

After a minute or so with it, it ended up looking like this:

How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

And, after a quick restart, it’s back to normal:

How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

It’s that simple! When you install packages and perform system updates, you’ll be required to enter the root password and those changes will carry through. As far as your Home directory goes, though, whether you make changes with or without “sudo” things will still revert back.

When you’re ready to make changes, be careful, as all changes from this session will go through. It’s a good idea to restart before you make any changes. Click on the Gofris icon and choose “Unlock this user” to unlock. You won’t have to restart again until you lock the account.

A Natty Note

At the moment, Gofris has not been updated for Natty at the moment, and having tried it on the Beta, it doesn’t seem to work. If you’re still running Maverick or if you stuck with Lucid for the long haul, then you’re good to go. If you’re running Natty’s beta on your main system, like me, then let’s hope for a speedy update.

I’ve been using Gofris for a few weeks on a netbook I gave to my parents, who don’t really know how to use Ubuntu, and for the guest account on my primary PC, until I updated to the Natty Beta. Have a few particular uses of your own? Share them in the comments!

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    How to Reset Any Changes to Your Ubuntu Computer and Add Kiosk-Mode

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    You may want to prevent changes from being made on your perfectly setup Ubuntu computer, but locking down user accounts gives annoying error messages and prevents temporary changes. With Gofris, you can accomplish this without complicated hard drive imaging.

    Locked-Down Changes

    It takes time to get the perfect installation and setup of your computer, especially on Linux systems where virtually every aspect of the OS can be tweaked. If you’re like me, you want to keep this pristine. You could image your hard drive and restore every so often, but then you’d have to update from scratch, and it takes a lot of time. You can lock down your user accounts to prevent changes, but then you can’t make temporary ones when you need to. And these problems are where Gofris comes in.

    Gofris is a tool that seamlessly locks your system down. Once enabled, it’ll remember the files in your home directory, system configurations, user interface tweaks, bookmarks, and browser sessions. After every single restart, it’ll restore it like new, but without taking time to restore from an image. At the same time, you can install software and perform system updates with those changes carrying through from restart to restart. It works well for setting up a Guest-mode for your computer, or turning your computer into a “public” kiosk.

    Installation

    As always, we love command-line installation.

    We need to add the above repository to install properly. Pop open a terminal and enter the following command:

    sudo add-apt-repository ppa:tldm217/gofris

    Then update your sources:

    sudo apt-get update

    And finally, we can install the proper English-language package:

    sudo apt-get install gofris-en

    Be sure the package ends in an “-en” because the default package is in Indonesian. All done! Now, you can launch Gofris by going to Applications > System Tools > GOFRIS.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    If things aren’t configured just right, then now is the time to do it.

    Locking and Unlocking

    Click on the Gofris icon.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    You have to choice of locking the current user, another specific user, or all users. Since I’m on a multi-user system, I locked just my account. Gofris will ask for a password so enter it, and you’ll be notified that you need to restart for the changes to take effect.

    Here’s a shot of before I messed up my system.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    After a minute or so with it, it ended up looking like this:

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    And, after a quick restart, it’s back to normal:

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    It’s that simple! When you install packages and perform system updates, you’ll be required to enter the root password and those changes will carry through. As far as your Home directory goes, though, whether you make changes with or without “sudo” things will still revert back.

    When you’re ready to make changes, be careful, as all changes from this session will go through. It’s a good idea to restart before you make any changes. Click on the Gofris icon and choose “Unlock this user” to unlock. You won’t have to restart again until you lock the account.

    A Natty Note

    At the moment, Gofris has not been updated for Natty at the moment, and having tried it on the Beta, it doesn’t seem to work. If you’re still running Maverick or if you stuck with Lucid for the long haul, then you’re good to go. If you’re running Natty’s beta on your main system, like me, then let’s hope for a speedy update.

    I’ve been using Gofris for a few weeks on a netbook I gave to my parents, who don’t really know how to use Ubuntu, and for the guest account on my primary PC, until I updated to the Natty Beta. Have a few particular uses of your own? Share them in the comments!

    Windows IoT Enterprise allows you to build fixed purpose devices such as ATM machines, point-of-sale terminals, medical devices, digital signs, or kiosks. Kiosk mode helps you create a dedicated and locked down user experience on these fixed purpose devices. Windows IoT Enterprise offers a set of different locked-down experiences for public or specialized use: assigned access single-app kiosks, assigned access multi-app kiosks, or shell launcher.

    Kiosk configurations are based upon either assigned access or shell launcher. There are several kiosk configuration methods that you can choose from, depending on your answers to the following questions.

    A benefit of using an assigned access kiosk mode is these policies are automatically applied to the device to optimize the lock-down experience.

    Which type of app will your kiosk run?

    Your kiosk can run a Universal Windows Platform (UWP) app or a Windows desktop application. For digital signage, select a digital sign player as your kiosk app. Check out the Guidelines for Kiosk Apps.

    Which type of kiosk do you need?

    If you want your kiosk to run a single app for anyone to see or use, consider an assigned-access single-app kiosk that runs either a Universal Windows Platform (UWP) app or a Windows desktop application.

    For a kiosk that people can sign in to with their accounts or that runs more than one app, consider an assigned access multi-app kiosk.

    Which type of user account will be the kiosk account?

    The kiosk account can be a local standard user account, a domain account, or an Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) account, depending on the method that you use to configure the kiosk. If you want people to sign in and authenticate on the device, you should use an assigned access multi-app kiosk configuration. The assigned access single-app kiosk configuration doesn’t require people to sign in to the device, although they can sign in to the kiosk app if you select an app that has a sign-in method.

    Kiosk capabilities for Windows 10 IoT Enterprise

    Mode Features Description Customer Usage
    Assigned access Single-app kiosk (UWP) Auto launches a UWP app in full screen and prevents access to other system functions, while monitoring the lifecycle of the kiosk app. Only supports one single-app kiosk profile under one account per device. Digital signs & single function devices
    Assigned access Single-app kiosk (Microsoft Edge) Auto launches Microsoft Edge and prevents access to other system functions, while monitoring the lifecycle of browser. Only supports one single-app kiosk profile under one account per device. Public browsing kiosks & digital signs
    Assigned access Multi-app kiosk Always auto launches a restricted Start menu in full screen with the list of allowed app tiles. Supports configuring different multi-app kiosk profiles for different users/user groups per device. Firstline Worker shared devices
    Shell launcher Shell launcher Auto launches an app that the customer specifies and monitors the lifecycle of this app. App can be used as a ‘shell’ if desired. No default lockdown policies like hotkey blocking are enforced in Shell Launcher. Fixed purpose devices with a custom shell experience

    Assigned access multi-app kiosk will not be available in the initial release of Windows 11 IoT Enterprise. See What’s new in Windows 11 IoT Enterprise for more information.

    How to configure your device for kiosk mode?

    Please visit the following documentation to set up a kiosk according to your scenario:

    G Suite Business Free for 30 Days

    Sign up for a Free 30 Day Trial of Google Workspace ( G Suite) Business and get Free Admin support from Google Certified Deployment Specialists. No Credit Card Required.

    Here at Apps Admins, we use our expertise in Google Cloud and other high-end cloud solutions to equip businesses with the latest and greatest. In this article, we’ll be explaining how e asy it is to set up Chrome OS Kiosk Mode and running on your Chrome devices, as well as those concepts to start with.

    Chrome Devices and Chrome for Work

    First, let’s start with Chrome for Work. Chrome for Work doesn’t really change much about Chrome itself: rather, it’s the name of Google’s initiative to encourage usage of its browser on its devices in schools and workplaces all over the country. While the regular Chrome browser can run just fine on a ‘normal’ desktop computer, many advantages of Google for Work and other features are exclusives to devices running Chrome OS: or, in short, Chrome Devices.

    Chrome Devices occupy a range of Chromebooks (specialized, cheap laptops running Chrome OS), Chrome Boxes (tiny PCs running Chrome OS) and even specialized devices like the Chromebase, a commercial-grade computer designed for business usage. up to and including being used as a kiosk.

    About Chrome Kiosk Mode

    Kiosk Mode is a feature in Chrome that allows the device to be used in a single-window/single-app kiosk mode. Essentially, it locks away access to the rest of the device. Kiosk Mode itself isn’t exclusive to Chrome Devices, either: with the addition of a launch command on Windows, Chrome can be launched in a fullscreen, browser-only mode that doesn’t allow the user access to the rest of the computer. It can also be modified to use a Guest account or head to a particular URL.

    However, Chrome can also make usage of what’s called Single App Kiosk Mode. In Single App Kiosk Mode, a user is locked onto a single, fullscreen Chrome App that they can’t change or exit. Single App Kiosk Mode differentiates itself from normal Kiosk Mode (as the user is still allowed control of the browser in that one) by locking the user into one particular site/Chrome App.

    Whether to enable Guest browsing on Chrome or to set up a perfect kiosk, both Kiosk Modes are ideal for restricting access to the computer and browser. Let’s talk about how to set them up.

    Setting up Chrome Kiosk Mode

    Chrome Kiosk Mode On A Managed Chrome Device

      Go to Chrome’s admin panel and adjust Kiosk Settings.

  • Kiosk Settings offer a variety of selections: Public Session Kiosk, Auto-Launch Public Session and Auto-Launch Kiosk App. Public Sessions are regular Chrome Kiosk Mode and Auto-Launch Kiosk App auto-launches a Single-App Kiosk Mode.
  • Pictured here is the Acer Chromebase for work we wrote about recently.

    Chrome Kiosk Mode On A Non-Managed Chrome Device

    1. Sign into the Chromebook and open Chrome.

    Head to chrome://extensions and enable Developer Mode.

  • Click Manage kiosk applications and enter the ID of the Kiosk App you want to use.
  • Chrome Kiosk Mode On Chrome for Windows

    1. If you don’t use one already, create a shortcut to Chrome on your Desktop.

    Right-click this shortcut and select “Properties”.

  • From there, select the “Shortcut” tab and the –kiosk command at the end of the Target field. This is where you can also add a particular URL to be launched in Kiosk Mode.
  • Note that this isn’t the same as Single-App Kiosk Mode, which is exclusive to Chrome Devices.

    Learning More

    Learn more about the picture of San Francisco’s Hyatt Regency’s use of the Chrome Kiosk Mode on Chrome devices here.

    Here at Apps Admins, we write a wide variety of articles on Google Apps, RingCentral and other business/enterprise applications. We also cover some general tech topics, too! Read our blog for more on Google for Work and other helpful articles like this.

    Additionally, if you or your business needs help with a wireless network installation or a Google Apps roll-out, don’t hesitate to contact us! We operate in the Charlotte, NC area and would love to help you out.

    – Last updated on December 7, 2020 by VG

    UPDATE: The method given in this tutorial to access “Kiosk Mode” works in both Mozilla Firefox and Microsoft Edge web browsers.

    This article will help you in learning how to launch Mozilla Firefox and Microsoft Edge web browsers in a hidden secret “Kiosk Mode” and how to exit from Kiosk Mode?

    Table of Contents

    What is Kiosk Mode?

    Kiosk Mode is a hidden secret feature introduced in newer versions of Mozilla Firefox web browser. It allows users to launch Firefox in a very restricted and limited mode best suitable for public areas or customer-facing displays such as libraries, vending machines, etc or for presentations, demonstrations, etc.

    When Firefox is launched in Kiosk Mode, following restrictions or limitations are applied:

    • Firefox runs in Full Screen mode and you can’t exit from full screen mode
    • All toolbars, navigation bar, titlebar, menubar, tab bar, bookmarks bar (favorites bar) are removed/disabled, so you can’t access any menus or options
    • Close, minimize and maximize buttons are also removed, so you can’t close Firefox window
    • F11 key doesn’t work to exit from full screen mode
    • If you right-click on a web page, nothing happens, no context menu is shown
    • Status bar is also hidden, so you can’t show website URLs by hovering over hyperlinks

    Following screenshot shows Mozilla Firefox running in Kiosk Mode without any toolbar, titlebar, Taskbar, etc:

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    Basically Kiosk Mode is a highly restricted mode of Mozilla Firefox browser which only lets users to open a web page, nothing else. You can’t open multiple tabs (Ctrl+T hotkey works to open multiple tabs). You can’t change or customize Firefox options and settings (you can use about:preferences and other similar about URLs to open Firefox Options and other default built-in pages). Kiosk Mode only shows the web page content occupying whole screen area without any browser chrome.

    You can consider Kiosk Mode as a single web app mode or digital signage where you can’t interact with Firefox.

    How to Open Firefox in Kiosk Mode?

    You just need to launch Firefox with –kiosk or -kiosk switch via RUN dialog box or Command Prompt and it’ll open in Kiosk Mode. Make sure no other Firefox windows are running before starting Firefox in Kiosk Mode.

    If you want to create a direct shortcut to always launch Firefox web browser in Kiosk Mode, following steps will help you:

    1. Create a new shortcut of Firefox, right-click on the new shortcut and select Properties.

    2. Now add following text at the end of the string present in Target text box:

    –kiosk

    Remember there must be a blank space between existing text string and the appended string.

    PS: You can also use -kiosk instead of –kiosk parameter.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    3. Click on Apply button and now try to launch Firefox and it’ll open in Kiosk Mode without any UI elements such as toolbars, titlebar, etc.

    How to Exit or Close Firefox from Kiosk Mode?

    Once you open Firefox in Kiosk Mode, you’ll notice that there is no option provided to exit from Kiosk Mode.

    You can press ALT+F4 or CTRL+T keys together to close Firefox running in Kiosk Mode.

    You can also press ALT+Spacebar keys together to show titlebar menu at top and then select Close option.

    BONUS TIPS:

    1. You can also mention a website URL with –kiosk parameter. For example:

    –kiosk https://www.microsoft.com/

    If you add above mentioned string at the end of Target text box in Firefox’s shortcut properties, it’ll open Microsoft.com website in Firefox using Kiosk Mode.

    2. You can also use following string to launch Firefox in kiosk mode along with private browsing mode:

    -kiosk -private-window https://www.microsoft.com/

    3. All hotkeys such as Ctrl+T, etc work in Kiosk mode. Also you can access Firefox pages such as Options, Add-ons Manager, etc using their URLs such as about:preferences, about:addons, etc.

    4. Although Kiosk Mode displays Firefox in full screen, you can still use ALT+Tab hotkey to switch between other running software programs. You can also press WIN key to show Start Menu and select other programs.

    You are here: Home » Microsoft Edge » [Tip] How to Use Secret “Kiosk Mode” in Mozilla Firefox and Microsoft Edge Web Browsers

    About the author: Vishal Gupta (also known as VG) has been awarded with Microsoft MVP (Most Valuable Professional) award. He holds Masters degree in Computer Applications (MCA). He has written several tech articles for popular newspapers and magazines and has also appeared in tech shows on various TV channels.

    Comments

    NOTE: Older comments have been removed to reduce database overhead. Be the first one to start the discussion.

    Chris Hoffman is Editor-in-Chief of How-To Geek. He’s written about technology for over a decade and was a PCWorld columnist for two years. Chris has written for The New York Times and Reader’s Digest, been interviewed as a technology expert on TV stations like Miami’s NBC 6, and had his work covered by news outlets like the BBC. Since 2011, Chris has written over 2,000 articles that have been read nearly one billion times—and that’s just here at How-To Geek. Read more.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    When you’re managing a public computer, you need a special kind of tool. You need a way to reset that computer back to a clean state every time it boots so no one can make any harmful changes.

    Commercial solutions like Deep Freeze offer this feature, and Microsoft once offered it via its Windows Steady State tool for Windows XP and Vista. However, Windows Steady State has been discontinued and doesn’t work with Windows 7.

    We’ll be using Reboot Restore Rx for this, as it supports both Windows 7 and Windows 8. Steadier State is another solid option, but it only works in Windows 7, and even then only with Windows 7 Enterprise and Ultimate.

    Installing Reboot Restore Rx

    Before installing Reboot Restore Rx, be sure that your system is in the clean state you want to “freeze” it in. Install the software you want, update it, arrange the desktop, and do everything else you need to do. Of course, you can temporarily disable Reboot Restore RX to update your system state later.

    While installing Reboot Restore Rx, you can select the partitions you want to restore at reboot. This allows you to have a separate data partition that won’t be touched, if you like — or you can set Reboot Restore RX to restore all your partitions.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    The computer will restart to install the Reboot Restore Rx recovery environment. Whenever the computer boots, it will first boot into this environment, where the Windows drive’s state will be restored automatically before the computer boots normally. To undo any changes, you’ll just need to reboot your computer.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    Preventing Users From Disabling Reboot Restore Rx

    Reboot Restore RX is fairly simple to use. Its biggest problem is that it can be disabled without a password. By default, Reboot Restore Rx launches in the system tray each time you log in and provides you with a right-click option that allows you to easily disable the protection. If you’re using Reboot Restore RX to lock down a public computer, that’s not a good idea.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    Your best bet is to prevent the Reboot Restore Rx icon from starting at boot by disabling it in MSConfig or a startup manager like the one found in CCleaner. If you want to disable the protection, you can then manually launch the Reboot Restore Rx application by browsing to it on your hard drive. The computer’s users could theoretically do this as well, but this provides more protection. You could even lock down the folder containing the Reboot Restore Rx application and require special user permissions to access it, which would prevent people from disabling it even if they went out of their way to look for it.

    If you need to launch it later, you’ll find the system tray program installed at C:\RebootRestoreRx\program files\Shield\shieldtray.exe

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    Updating or Changing Your System

    Of course, you’ll occasionally want to modify your system. Whether you want to install updates, add new software, delete files, or do anything else on your computer, you’ll have to disable the feature. This is a very simple process.

    • First, disable the Restore on Reboot option from the system tray icon. If you have disabled the system tray icon, you will need to launch it manually.
    • Next, make your changes. Update your software and do everything else you want to do.
    • After you’re done, right-click the system tray icon again and select Restore on Reboot. When you do this, it will inform you that it’s making the current system the new baseline state.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    Accessing the Boot Console

    At the Reboot Restore Rx splash screen, which will appear every time your computer starts, you can press the Home key on your keyboard repeatedly to access a special menu. Anyone with access to the computer could theoretically do this, but they would need to know they have to press the Home key — it isn’t displayed on-screen.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    You can choose to Uninstall Reboot Restore Rx from here. This will remove Reboot Restore Rx from your system.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    Reboot Restore Rx isn’t the most secure and enterprise-ready option, but it’s very easy-to-use and runs on a variety of different Windows systems. Reboot Restore Rx is ideal for people who want their computers to be in the same state every time they boot and don’t want to purchase the Ultimate edition of Windows or perform a more complicated setup process, whether they’re a business with a few public computers or parents who want their childrens’ computers locked down.

    So I have debt that wants to setup a spare windows 7 computer on the counter so customers can come in setup advertisements/listings on our web site. I assume that means i need to lock it down to our web site and flash drive usage. though the later maybe risky however on the other hand allows uploading of photos for the advertisements.

    Popular Topics in General Software

    12 Replies

    Worked on a similar project, some discussion of that here:

    All I can say is, I used group policy heavily to lock users out of the stuff they didn’t need to do, and I have just enough access to log on to the Admin account to do maintenance and troubleshoot as needed. And I enabled kiosk mode for the browser, set it to auto-start in the user desktop, and in BIOS I set the computers to wol in the morning and task scheduler shuts them down every night at closing. So, staff is happy, very minimal need for tech assistance on these.

    Also, I am not running Deep Freeze or other software (as mentioned above), in my case I am good without it because the way they are used is so specific (library card catalog/OPAC) that users don’t have any way to get into trouble.

    I can give you more specifics if you have questions on anything.

    Kiosk software in general (and KioWare in particular) is a perfect solution for this. You can allow for file uploads with KioWare for Windows and set a destination file for those uploads.

    You might even be able to use the kiosk for advertising those listings, via the attract screen (depending on your set up).

    KioWare would lock down your device to only the allowed websites or applications, and would restrict access to keyboard keys, unauthorized OS access, allowed websites, and more. Using multiple browser windows, you could also set one browser to display other content, relevant to your advertisers, or just showcase other ads, content or images (see screen shot example below). Notice the toolbar (customizable) and the three browser windows displayed below (including weather).

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    Feel free to chat us with questions and/or email me at [email protected] with questions. It’s a free fully functioning demo download and you would likely only need KioWare Lite. The license is a perpetual (one time) license with annual support recommended.

    • local_offer Tagged Items
    • How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-modeKioWare Lite for Windows star 4

    Brand Representative for Horizon DataSys

    Whatever you end up deciding, I’d also add Reboot Restore Rx (it’s free) to the machine. That way even if someone does manage to mess it up, it’ll just reset itself once you reboot it.

    Thanks for the mention LarryG.!

    Since it’s just one computer I would definitely recommend our restore on reboot software Reboot Restore Rx. It will save the configuration/setup of the machine once installed and then return the system to that point on every reboot. This ensures no changes are made permanent by the previous users, and keeps those machines up and running longer.

    PM me if you wanna know more!

    • local_offer Tagged Items
    • Reboot Restore Rx star 4.2

    Chris Hoffman is Editor-in-Chief of How-To Geek. He’s written about technology for over a decade and was a PCWorld columnist for two years. Chris has written for The New York Times and Reader’s Digest, been interviewed as a technology expert on TV stations like Miami’s NBC 6, and had his work covered by news outlets like the BBC. Since 2011, Chris has written over 2,000 articles that have been read nearly one billion times—and that’s just here at How-To Geek. Read more.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    An iPad makes a great “kiosk” device–a tablet restricted to one specific app for your home or small business. You can create a makeshift kiosk using the Guided Access feature, or enable Single App Mode for a true kiosk environment.

    Both of these tricks also work on an iPhone or iPod Touch, so you can use it to put a smaller device into kiosk mode.

    Guided Access vs. Single App Mode

    There are two ways to do this. Guided Access is the quickest, easiest way to put an iPad in kiosk mode. Guided Access is often thought of as a parental control feature, but it’s actually intended for teachers in schools–that’s why it’s categorized as a “Learning” feature in Apple’s iOS.

    Guided Access allows you to temporarily lock an iPad, iPhone, or iPod Touch to a single app. To leave that app, someone will have to enter your PIN or provide your fingerprint.

    There’s also Single App Mode, which is exactly what it sounds like: It fully locks your iPad to a single app. This is a more advanced feature intended for organizations. You’ll need to use Apple Configurator (or a mobile device management server) to enable this feature, and it can only be disabled with the same tool. However, you need to have access to a Mac to use Apple Configurator and Single App Mode.

    If you need to set up a quick and dirty kiosk, Guided Access is an okay solution. But, if you want to do this properly, you should use Single App Mode. Single App Mode is a more secure solution because no one can attempt to guess your PIN to leave Single App Mode, as they can with Guided Access. More importantly, if someone resets the iPad by pressing and holding the “Sleep/Wake” and “Home” buttons at the same time, the iPad will boot back up into the app you configured. If you used Guided Access, it would just boot back up and ask you to sign in with your PIN. The iPad would remain secure–as long as someone can’t guess the PIN–but you’d have to sign in and manually enable Guided Access mode for that specific app again.

    Guided Access: The Quick and Dirty Solution

    To do this with Guided Access, first enable it by opening the Settings app and going to General > Accessibility > Guided Access. Enable the “Guided Access” slider here.

    Tap “Passcode Settings” to set a PIN for guided access and choose whether or not you can exit Guided Access with Touch ID, if your iPad has a Touch ID sensor. You can use the same PIN you use to unlock the iPad or a different one.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    Next, launch the app you’d like to lock your iPad to. Quickly press the “Home” button three times in a row. The Guided Access screen will appear, and you can use the options here to configure it. By default, the touch screen is enabled and the Sleep/Wake button is disabled. However, you can disable the touch screen and allow people to use the Sleep/Wake button, if you like.

    Tap “Start” in the top-right corner of your screen when you’re ready. While in Guided Access mode, the iPad’s screen won’t turn off–it’ll remain on and unlocked for anyone to use it. You may want to plug the iPad in if you intend on leaving it on. You could also choose to enable the Sleep/Wake button on the Guided Access screen. This will allow anyone to turn off the iPad’s screen. Anyone can turn it on and they’ll be taken to the app in Guided Access mode without having to enter a PIN.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    Single App Mode: The Best Solution

    Single App Mode requires you put your iPad into Supervised Mode, so it’s a bit more work to set up. Single App Mode can also be remotely enabled via a mobile device management (MDM) server if your organization uses one to manage your tablets. If you just need a temporary kiosk and don’t want to bother with this, use the above solution. For a more permanent kiosk, this is ideal.

    To do this without a mobile device management server, you’ll first need to download and install Apple Configurator from Apple and use it to place your iPad into Supervised Mode. You can then use Apple Configurator to enable Single App Mode. This can only be done on a Mac, as Apple Configurator only runs on Macs.

    With your iPad in Supervised Mode and connected to your Mac via a USB cable, open the Apple Configurator application and select the connected device. Click the “Actions” menu, point to “Advanced,” and select “Start Single App Mode.”

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    You’ll be shown a list of apps installed on your iPad–both system apps and apps you’ve installed yourself. Select the app you want to lock the iPad to.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    For more options, you can click the “Options” button here. By default, features like the touch screen, volume buttons, sleep/wake button, and auto-lock are all functional. However, you could use these options to disable the touch screen if you don’t want anyone actually interacting with the device, or to disable the sleep/wake button and auto-lock. This will ensure the iPad always has its screen on, which may be ideal if you’re leaving it plugged in. It’s up to you.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    Click the “Select App” button when you’re done and the iPad will be truly locked to a single app. People with access to it won’t be able to triple-click the “Home” button and attempt to guess your PIN. When the iPad boots up, it’ll go right back to that specific app.

    To disable Single App Mode in the future, connect the iPad to the Mac again, open Apple Configurator, and use the Actions > Advanced > Stop Single App Mode option.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    Apple provides the tools you need to put an iPad into kiosk mode and lock it to a single app, but choosing an app and ensuring it functions as a proper kiosk environment is up to you. Businesses may need to have custom apps created for specific functions.

    We don’t allow questions about general computing hardware and software on Stack Overflow. You can edit the question so it’s on-topic for Stack Overflow.

    Closed 9 months ago .

    I have tried all the following and I just can’t get Chrome to open in fullscreen with or without kiosk mode:

    Which says simply to create a shortcut with the following as target:

    I have tried with — and –

    I have tried creating a BAT file and using the following

    What am i missing?

    6 Answers 6

    for anyone here that want to open a new chrome window without url bar it is not called kiosk mode, it is called app mode. and the command to append to your chrome path is:

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    You can use the following code to open the Chrome browser in a full window or kiosk mode on Windows 7:

    Even if the chrome browser is closed down, all instances of Chrome.exe in the Windows Task Manager need to be manually closed. Even if testing when a PC is freshly turned on, I still need to close instances of Chrome.exe from the Windows Task Manager.

    When all instances are closed, running a shortcut with the following target seems to work:

    Does anyone know how to stop the instances of Chrome.exe in the Windows Task manager interfering?

    In order for the target path:

    to work, you need to quit all chrome processes, including background process. You can actually disallow chrome to run in background.

    But, there is an alternative to using the above approach.

    • Add the kiosk app(extension) to your chrome.
    • In the kiosk app settings, give the URL and other details as appropriate(You can launch the app from webstore after adding it to chrome).
    • From the extensions window of chrome, click on details of Kiosk extension and click on create app shortcuts button.
    • Use the shortcuts created to enter chrome in kiosk mode.

    Home » DevOps and Development » How to Commit Changes to a Docker Image with Examples

    When working with Docker images and containers, one of the basic features is committing changes to a Docker image. When you commit to changes, you essentially create a new image with an additional layer that modifies the base image layer.

    In this tutorial, you will learn how to commit changes to a Docker image by following our simple examples.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    • Access to a command-line/terminal window (Ctrl+Alt+T)
    • A user account with root or sudo privileges
    • Docker installed and configured

    Steps For Committing Changes to Docker Image

    Step 1: Pull a Docker Image

    To illustrate how to commit changes, you first need to have an image to work with. In this article, we work with the latest Ubuntu image for Docker. Download the image from Docker’s library with:

    If you recheck the available images, you will see the Ubuntu image:

    Copy IMAGE ID for later use.

    Step 2: Deploy the Container

    Add the IMAGE ID to the command that will create a container based on the image:

    The –it options instruct the container to launch in interactive mode and enable a terminal typing interface. Upon executing the command, a new container launches and moves you to a new shell prompt for working inside of it.

    Step 3: Modify the Container

    Now that you are in the container, you can modify the image. In the following example, we add the Nmap software for network discovery and security auditing:

    The command will download the Nmap package and install it inside the running container.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    You can verify the installation by running:

    The output shows you that Nmap version 7.60 is installed and ready to use.

    Once you finish modifying the new container, exit out of it:

    You will need the CONTAINER ID to save the changes you made to the existing image. Copy the ID value from the output.

    Step 4: Commit Changes to Image

    Finally, create a new image by committing the changes using the following syntax:

    Therefore, in our example it will be:

    Where deddd39fa163 is the CONTAINER ID and ubuntu-nmap is the name of the new image.

    Your newly created image should now be available on the list of local images. You can verify by checking the image list again:

    Now that you have learned how to commit changes to a Docker image and create a new one for future uses, take a look at our tutorial on how to set up and use Private Docker Registry.

    Occasionally WSL hangs on Windows 10. Opening “Ubuntu” bash just hangs. Any way to restart WSL without rebooting Windows ?

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    17 Answers 17

    I believe the most effective way today for WSL2, in Cmd Prompt / PowerShell:

    To expand on kev’s answer, you need to restart the LxssManager service. This can be done by opening Task Manager with CTRL SHIFT ESC , going to the Services tab, finding the LxssManager service, right-clicking and selecting Restart .

    You can shut down Ubuntu by using wslconfig (in Windows Command Prompt or PowerShell):

    and it will start automatically next time you open a shell.

    Open powershell with admin privileges and type the below command to restart the lxxsManger :

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    Assuming your wsl distribution name is Ubuntu .

    You can use wsl command in Command Prompt (cmd) to find out distribution names and terminate / shutdown / restart a specific distribution.

    Restart in sense that you shutdown your wsl distribution and start it again.

    1. Open cmd.
    2. Use wsl -l or wsl –list to list / show all installed distributions. It’ll give you output like this. The (Default) is not part of name, just a marker.
    1. Terminate / shutdown your desired distribution using wsl -t or wsl –terminate like

    and it will start automatically next time when you open it.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    go to windows setting -> Apps & features -> select ubuntu you installed -> click Advanced options(might need to wait a little bit) -> Terminate

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    shutdown windows-service Lxss-Manager

    Try these steps:

    1. From your Start Menu, search for “Turn Windows features on or off”
    2. Uncheck “Windows Subsystem for Linux”, save your changes, and reboot your computer
    3. Check “Windows Subsystem for Linux”, save your changes, and reboot your computer

    Your WSL should be working now.

    Update (8/23/21): As an additional remark, I would recommend disconnecting WSL from VS Code prior to closing VS Code. While it is a tad tedious, from my anecdotal experience I have found that doing this extra step reduces the likelihood of the hanging issue occurring.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    From the windows command prompt, issue wslconfig /L to see the list of registered distributions.

    Now issue wslconfig /t with the distribution name obtained from above command.

    You can then see the Ubuntu instance getting terminated.

    Hope this helps.

    While the other solutions work as well, I like this concise command for Windows PowerShell or cmd:

    To see which distributions are installed, you can run wsl -l .

    What worked for me was to start Task Manager with Administrator privileges and enable command line in the Processes column by right clicking on any of the existing column. Then find Service Host in front of which there is empty line. Expand it and see if it contains LxssManager. If it does, then terminate it by right clicking and clicking on end task. Then start the WSL and it will work.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    Important note: Please remember to limit hardware resources usage Solution :

    If wsl already installed, in PowerShell as admin :

    In main user folder create .configwsl file:

    add the following:

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    Here is my variation on solving the problem.

    After starting WSL it looked like the image in the question. Could not do anything and it never changed even after half an hour. Rebooting did nothing to help.

    The answers noting to use Task Manager – Services tab to look at LxssManager lead me in the correct direction but did not resolve the problem.

    In further reading the solution is to kill the process.

    a. To get the Process Identifier (PID) from a Windows Command Prompt with administrative rights run

    b. Using Task Manager – Details tab find the PID, right click and select End Process Tree .

    1. Now go back and start WSL as normal.

    This is a very common issue for Wsl users. The first and easiest way is to run wsl —-shutdown .If you have multiple Wsl machines, run wsl —-shutdown Ubuntu (Run those commands on Administrative Command prompt or Powershell) Or go to Windows Settings -> Apps and Features -> Ubuntu -> Advanced options and click Terminate like on hereAdvanced Ubuntu settings Wsl Or go to Admin/Normal Command Prompt or Powershell, and type in Wsl You will go to your default Wsl machine. If you want to go to another Wsl machine, you can change the default Wsl machine. To see which is your default Wsl machine, Open an administrator command prompt and type thisenter image description here Change that by typing wsl –setdefault , or wsl -s Replace Distribution name by your distribution

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    How do I restart the Windows 10 subsystem (WSL) ubuntu?

    The WSL subsystem runs based on LxssManager services, so run PowerShell under administrator privileges and stop LxssManager.

    I would like to make a debian system where you can only open one GUI program at boot, no other graphical interface, no minimize, or any X apart from that program, is there a way to do it on debian if possible, or any other custom distro? I just want to boot open the program and allow the user to only see and use that program.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    2 Answers 2

    I’ve done that with Ubuntu (Debian based), though I think the technique applies for other distros too. I’ll just summarize the steps here together with some explanation, see “Run Linux with a bare window manager” for the scripts.

    Add a custom session by creating a file at /usr/share/xsessions/metacity-session.desktop . This file tells the login manager about your session.

    Create the file to be executed by the session added in (1) /usr/local/bin/metacity-session

    Create the user-specific config file

    /.metacity-session . This file will be executed by the file added in (2). The content should be the program you want to run, followed by an ampersand, for example

    Optionally make the user auto-login and make the custom session the default session for the user.

    Here I use Metacity as the window manager for its simplicity, you can use Compiz if you want to.

    There are tools to lock down the system. A search yields tools such as sabayon and pessulus. I haven’t used any of them to give a recommendation.

    There are also distros specialized on kiosk mode, the most promising seems to be Fedora Kiosk Mode, though it’s not Debian based.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    I know this is a little old but I’ve written a simple how to on this that works on PCs and the Raspberry PI:

    Creating a Debian Chromium Kiosk (PC or Raspberry PI)

    download and install debian

    • PC x64 or i386 : download “standard” iso from debian.org
    • raspberry pi 2/3 : download “raspbian lite” from raspberryip.org
      • use Win32DiskImager to write img to SD card

    after install use apt to install packages

    • on raspberry pi chromium package is chromium-browser
    • installing packages is slow on raspberry, get a FAST SD card (class 10 or better)

    configure lightdm for autologin

    • edit /etc/lightdm/lightdm.conf goto [SeatDefaults] section, uncomment autologin-user
    • is defined during debian installer for PC
    • is ‘pi’ for raspberry pi

    configure openbox to start chromium automatically

      edit /etc/xdg/openbox/autostart or create

    /.config/openbox/autostart and add these lines:

  • change google.com to whatever you need
  • the xset commands disable screen savers
  • on raspberry pi chromium is chromium-browser
  • to auto connect to Wifi

    • edit /etc/network/interfaces and write:
    • replace and with your respective WiFi SSID and password

    Home » SysAdmin » How To Set or Change Timezone/Date/Time on Ubuntu 18.04

    Modern operating systems detect and synchronize time using NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) time servers. NIST operates an atomic clock that neither gains nor loses a second in 300 million years.

    However, you may find that your system is not synchronizing with NIST time servers properly.

    This guide shows you how to check, change the time, date, and timezone in Ubuntu.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    • Some operations may require sudo or root privileges
    • The command line/terminal window (Ctrl-Alt-T)

    Most modern distributions such as Fedora, Debian, Ubuntu, Arch, CentOS v.7.x+, and other Unix-based systems use the timedatectl utility. This command allows you to control and edit time and date settings using the command line.

    Using timedatectl to Control the System Time and Date

    Display Current Date and Time with timedatectl

    To display the current time and date information use the command:

    The output provides local and universal time, timezone, and informs you if the synchronization process is enabled.

    Sync Time to NIST Atomic Clock

    You can set your Ubuntu system to synchronize to the NIST atomic clock:

    If you need to turn off NTP synchronizing to be able to adjust the time and date manually, use:

    Note: NTP stands for Network Time Protocol.

    How to Change the Time

    This simple command sets the time to your specifications. For it to work, the automatic time synchronization needs to be disabled as discussed previously.

    The time format should be in HH:MM:SS (Hours, Minutes, Seconds).

    How to Change the Date

    The same command is used to define the date as well:

    The date should be formatted as YYYY-MM-DD (Year, Month, and Day).

    How to Set a Timezone in Ubuntu

    The timedatectl command additionally allows you to synchronize your systems with a timezone of your choosing. These are the steps:

    1. To list out the names of the timezones:

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    2. Find the location closest to you, then enter the following:

    3. Replace Region/Location with a name from the timezone list.

    The timezone list is extensive. You may want to filter the list by keyword, using grep :

    The | is a pipe symbol, usually next to the Enter key. You can substitute keyword for any keyword you wish, such as America, Asia, or New_York. If you get an error, double-check your spelling and make sure that you are using capital letters correctly.

    How to Set Universal Time (UTC) in Ubuntu

    UTC stands for Coordinated Universal Time and is used for scientific calculations and synchronizing between timezones across the globe. You can synchronize your system by entering the following command:

    There is no immediate output; however, you can check if the settings applied by using timedatectl .

    Note: GMT and Zulu Time are often used to refer to UTC. They are equivalent terms when fractions of a second are not relevant.

    How to Sync Hardware Clock

    RTC stands for Real-Time Clock, another name for the hardware clock in your computer. Your system has a tiny quartz crystal and a battery that keeps time at times when the system disconnects from a network.

    Set Hardware Clock to Sync to Local Timezone

    To have your Real-Time Clock synchronize to your local timezone enter:

    You may get an error in this mode, since updating the hardware clock to the local timezone is unsupported.

    Set the Hardware Clock to Sync with UTC

    If necessary, you can set your hardware clock to synchronize with UTC by entering the following command:

    As with the previous command, there is no confirmation that the change has applied. You need to verify the change manually by using the timedatectl command.

    Set Time, Date Timezone in Ubuntu Older Versions From Command Line

    Older Ubuntu versions may not support the timedatectl command. Find out how to get the Ubuntu version.

    You can still display and adjust system time setting from a command line by using the commands listed below:

    • To display the date and time of the operating system use:
    • Change the date of the operating system by typing:

    Replace YY-MM-DD with Year-Month-Day, and HH:MM:SS with Hour:Minute:Second. You can set just the date or only the time, depending on your needs.

    • Display the time kept by the hardware clock (RTC) by using any of the following commands:

    Note: Some versions may not support the –-verbose option, and it may not work on a virtual machine. The hardware clock may not hold the same time as the operating system.

    • Display the RTC time in UTC format:
    • Change the time kept by the RTC:
    • Set OS time based on the hardware clock (RTC):

    This command tells the system to set the HC (hardware clock) to SYS (system):

    • Set the RTC based on the operating system time:

    Use this command to reverse the previous process.

    This guide showed you how to set the time, date, and timezone on your Ubuntu system. As we learned, setting your system to synchronize with NTP is typically the best course of action.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    There isn’t just one way to get out of a crash on Ubuntu or any other Linux system. The circumstances around a crash are always different. That said, there are a couple of tried and true methods that you can use depending on the severity of the issue.

    1. Kill the X Server

    Most “crashes” on Ubuntu are caused by an unresponsive X Server. If you’re not familiar, the X Server is the service that manages the Linux graphical environment. It’s a large complicated piece of software, and it tends to be the first thing to break down when something goes wrong.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    Since X is just a service like any other running on the system, you should be able to stop and restart it. In order to do that, you’re going to need to get to a different console.

    There’s a fairly simple way to do that – press Ctrl + Alt + F3 . On a Ubuntu system running GNOME, that will get you to an unused console. It should work with other desktop environments, too. If it doesn’t, try the different F keys. If absolutely nothing happens, try pressing Alt + SysRq + R first. In the event that none of that works, move on to a different method.

    Once you’re in the console, you can use it like you would any other terminal. Sign in and try to restart the X server.

    If you’re not using GNOME, replace gdm3 with “sddm” for KDE or “lightdm” for just about anything else.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    That should restart X, but if it doesn’t, you can try looking up the process and killing it.

    In case that doesn’t work, try restarting the system.

    2. SSH In

    This is another solution for an unresponsive X server. Sometimes accessing the console is too much of a pain, or it’s simply not working. In that case you might still be able to get into the system over your network with SSH. If your Ubuntu install isn’t running SSH, it’s simple enough to install.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    You can jump onto another computer and use SSH to access Ubuntu. Use your username and the IP address of your Ubuntu machine.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    Once you’re in, you can use the terminal like you normally would. Again, you can try to restart X.

    If that doesn’t work, try killing the process or restarting the machine.

    3. Alt + SysRq + REISUB

    It’s not always the X server that locks up a Linux system. It could be a genuine crash of the entire system. Thankfully, the Linux kernel has built-in tools to allow you low-level control of the system in the event everything else goes wrong. These commands are accessible by pressing the combination of Alt and SysRq on your keyboard. That combination of keys tells the Linux kernel to stop listening to just about everything else and pay attention to the user’s input.

    To completely bypass the crash and reboot the system, press Alt + SysRq, then enter the following keys in order R – E – I – S – U – B . (This is the opposite of the word “BUSIER.”) That combination of keys will steal keyboard control away from X, terminate all processes running on the machine, sync up the data on your hard drives, unmount the drives, and reboot the system. Essentially, it manually simulates the shutdown process.

    When your system boots up again, everything should be normal.

    4. Chroot from Live CD

    What happens if it’s not normal? What if something really bad happened, and the system broke and won’t boot? There’s something that you can try in that situation, too. You’ll need a Ubuntu live CD (it can be a USB), so if you don’t already have one, it’s a good idea to have one on hand anyway.

    Boot your computer into the live CD. Then, from within the live CD, you’ll need to create a few directories to work from.

    Mount your computer’s partitions in those directories. Check your actual partition labels.

    Mount a couple of system directories in the recovery directory structure to make sure everything works properly.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    Finally, use chroot to change your root directory to your crashed Ubuntu system’s root. This will allow you to actually use the crashed system.

    Now that you’re in the system, you can try to debug it and find exactly what’s broken. Seeing as you couldn’t boot, the GRUB bootloader would be a good place to start looking. If you have a broken upgrade, you can also run Apt from here, and it will upgrade your system or repair your broken upgrade.

    Again, there isn’t going to be one universal solution from here, but at least you can access your system to figure it out.

    In the rare event that your system actually is broken beyond repair, use the live CD to back up your files from your /home directory to an external or networked hard drive. That said, that method or one of the others should be able to get you back to a functional Ubuntu system.

    This article was first published in September 2008 and was updated in May 2018.

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    Is your screen (or external monitor) resolution is low? thus making the items on your screen look larger and less clear? Or do you want to simply increase the current maximum resolution or add a custom resolution?

    In this article, we will show how to add missing or set custom display resolution in Ubuntu and its derivatives such as Linux Mint. By the end of this article, you will be able to set to a higher resolution, making content on your screen appear sharper and clearer.

    Changing the Resolution or Orientation of the Screen Using Displays

    Normally, to change the resolution or orientation of the screen, you can use the Displays graphical user interface tool (open the Activities overview and type Displays, click to open it or System Menu then type Displays and open it).

    Note: In case you have multiple displays connected to your computer (as shown in the following image), if they are not mirrored, you can have different settings on each display. To change the settings for a display device, select it in the preview area.

    Next, select the resolution or scale you want to use, and choose the orientation then click Apply. Then select Keep This Configuration.

    Change Screen Resolution in Ubuntu

    Changing the Resolution or Orientation of the Screen Using Xrandr

    Alternatively, you can also use the powerful xrandr tool (a command-line interface to RandR (Resize and Rotate) X Window System extension) which is used to set the size, orientation and/or reflection of the outputs for a screen.

    You can also use it to set the screen size or list all active monitors as shown.

    List Active Monitors in Ubuntu

    To show the names of different outputs available on your system and resolutions available on each, run xrandr without any arguments.

    List Available Screen Resolutions in Ubuntu

    Set Screen Resolution in Ubuntu

    To set the resolution for a screen for an external monitor named DP-1 to 1680×1050, use the –mode flag as shown.

    You can also set the refresh rate using the –rate flag as shown.

    You can also use the –left-of , –right-of , –above , –below , and –same-as options to arrange your screens either relatively to each other.

    For example, I want my external monitor (DP-1) to be positioned left of the Laptop screen (eDP-1) in correspondence to the actual physical positioning:

    Keep in mind that any changes made using xrandr will only last until you log out or restart the system. To make xrandr changes persistently, use the xorg.conf configuration files for Xorg X server (run man xorg.conf for details on how to create a xorg.conf file) – this is the most effective method.

    You can also use the

    /.xprofile file (add xrandr commands in it), however, there are some disadvantages of using this method, one is that this script is read fairly late in the startup process, thus it will not alter the resolution of the display manager (if you use one e.g lightdm).

    How to Add Missing or Set Custom Display Resolution Using xrandr

    It is possible to add a missing or custom display resolution e.g 1680 x 1000 to Displays panel, for a specific display device (DP-1), as explained below.

    Add Missing Display Resolution in Ubuntu

    To add a missing or custom display resolution, you need to calculate the VESA Coordinated Video Timing (CVT) modes for it. You can do this using the cvt utility as follows.

    For example, if you need a horizontal and vertical resolution of 1680 x 1000, run the following command.

    Next, copy the Modeline (“1680x1000_60.00″ 139.25 1680 1784 1960 2240 1000 1003 1013 1038 -hsync +vsync) from the output of the cvt command and use it to create a new mode using the xrandr as shown.

    Then add the new mode to the display.

    Add Missing Resolution in Ubuntu

    Now open the Displays and check if the new resolution has been added.

    Verify Resolution

    The above changes are only temporary and work for the current session (they last until you log out or restart the system).

    To add the resolution permanently, create a script called external_monitor_resolution.sh in the directory /etc/profile.d/.

    Then add the following lines in the file:

    Save the changes and exit the file.

    For more information on how xrandr works and how to use it, read its man page:

    That brings us to the end of this article. If you have any thoughts to share or queries, reach us via the feedback form below.

    If You Appreciate What We Do Here On TecMint, You Should Consider:

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    These tutorials provide a step-by-step process to doing development and dev-ops activities on Ubuntu machines, servers or devices.

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    Provision an Ubuntu virtual machine running SQL Server in Azure

    Canonical has worked with Microsoft to bring a high-performing and fully supported solution for SQL Server to market, based around the Ubuntu Pro. In this tutorial you will learn how easy it is to get up and running.

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    Ubuntu Core can be booted into normal, recovery and reinstall modes. This tutorial will show you how to make use of this feature for debugging production issues and reverting a system to “factory” defaults.

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    © 2022 Canonical Ltd. Ubuntu and Canonical are registered trademarks of Canonical Ltd.

    This brief tutorial shows students and new users how to reboot | restart Ubuntu from the command line using the systemctl or shutdown commands.

    For student or new user looking for a Linux system to start learning on, the easiest place to start is Ubuntu Linux OS…. It’s a great Linux operating system for beginners.

    Ubuntu is an open source Linux operating systems that runs on desktops, laptops, server and other devices…

    When learning how to use Ubuntu, you will find that Linux isn’t so different than Windows and other operating systems in so many ways, especially when it comes to using the system to get work done.…

    Both Ubuntu and Windows systems allow you to be productive, easy to use, reliable and enable you to install and run thousands of programs, from gaming to productivity suite software for individuals and businesses.

    However, when you’re learning to use and understand Ubuntu Linux, you should also learn how to use the command line to terminal. Most Linux users should be able to do some basic command line tasks. This tutorial is going to show you how….

    Below you’ll learn how to shutdown, restart or reboot Ubuntu from the command line. This should work both on Ubuntu desktops and servers OS.

    When you ready continue with the steps below:

    Option 1: Restart | Reboot using systemctl Command

    Newer Linux systems, including Ubuntu are using systemctl command to manage different tasks. You can use it to change the system’s hostname, setup timezone and many more.

    So, using the systemctl command you can reboot or restart Ubuntu by running the commands below:

    sudo systemctl reboot

    When you run the command above, the system will initial reboot immediately.

    Logged-in users will be notified that the system is going to shutdown, and system’s services that are running will begin to stop processing.

    If you don’t want users to be notified or send custom shutdown messages, the you can add command options.

    To prevent user notifications, run the reboot command with the –no-wall option.

    sudo systemctl –no-wall reboot

    The command above will shutdown the system without notifying any logged in users.

    If you want to send custom message that the system is going down for a particular reason, run the command with the –message=” “ option:

    sudo systemctl –message=”System Maintenance ” reboot

    The commands above will display a message to all logged in users that the system is going reboot with a message that reads:

    (System Maintenance)

    This is how to reboot Ubuntu

    Option 2: Reboot | Restart using the shutdown Command

    You can accomplish the same goals as above using the shutdown command. The shutdown command is the oldest way to shutdown or reboot Linux systems, including Ubuntu.

    To reboot Ubuntu using the shutdown command, run the command with the -r option:

    sudo shutdown -r

    The -r option tells the command to reboot.

    By default the system will reboot after 1 minute. However, if can use other command options to specified how long to wait before going to reboot the system.

    For example, to reboot the system after 5 mins , run the commands below:

    sudo shutdown -r +5

    That will reboot the system after 5 mins.

    To specify an exact time to reboot, use the format hh:mm for hours and minutes.

    Example, shutdown at 11:15am , run the command below

    sudo shutdown -r 11:15

    To immediately shutdown the system without waiting, run the commands with the now option:

    sudo shutdown now

    That will start the shutdown immediately!

    If you scheduled a shutdown and want to cancel, run the command with option -c

    sudo shutdown -c “Canceling scheduled reboot”

    That’s it! This is how one can reboot using system from the command line.

    Congratulations! you have learned how to reboot Ubuntu system from the command line using the systemctl and shutdown command.

    You may also like the post below:

    Published by Richard

    In my spare time, I research topics that are interesting and worthwhile for users and students who want to try something new. I, too, am a student and my focus here is to help other students and new users get started with managing Ubuntu Linux, Windows, Content Management Systems (CMS) and others.

    I try to do my best explaining the topics and detailing the instructions so that anyone can understand. These tutorials may not work in all situations and for all users. However, if you run into trouble, please ask your questions below and I or someone from the community may help you resolve. Thanks for reading and hope you come back.

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    If you can boot from CD/USB

    When Windows doesn’t boot properly and you cannot get into the BIOS to change the boot order, you could be lucky enough that booting to CD or USB might already be set at a higher priority than booting to Windows and simply inserting a CD or flash drive will boot to it automatically. It’s also possible that CD or USB booting could be just below hard drives in the order, in which case you would need to temporarily disconnect the hard drive(s).

    If you can still access Windows, another solution to enable CD/USB booting is using a great tool called Plop Boot Manager. What it does is allow booting from these devices even if the system BIOS doesn’t support the function or the boot order is not accessible. Even if you don’t want it for this purpose, Plop is a great tool to know about for using on older computers.

    Here are some tools which can be used by booting from the relevant CD or USB flash drive. Simply burn the downloaded ISO file to a disc or use one of these ISO to USB tools.

    PC CMOS Cleaner

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    PC CMOS Cleaner is able to recover, remove, decode and display the user or supervisor password stored in the BIOS irrespective of the machine brand. Award, American Megatrends (AMI), Compaq, Phoenix, Samsung, IBM, Compaq, DTK, Thinkpad, Sony, Toshiba are all in the list of supported BIOSes so there’s a good chance your BIOS is included. PC CMOS Cleaner is a bootable Linux CD so you don’t have to worry about operating system compatibility. On launch the program will first try to decrypt and display a list of possible passwords. Failing that, you can choose to remove the password using two options, the second of which will completely reset the BIOS to defaults so you’ll have to go and reconfigure it afterwards.

    CmosPwd by CGSecurity

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    This is one of the more up to date and popular CMOS decryption tools although it’s still quite old dating back to 2007. CmosPwd decrypts the password stored in the CMOS and displays it. The following BIOSes are supported:

    • ACER/IBM BIOS
    • AMI BIOS
    • AMI WinBIOS 2.5
    • Award 4.5x/4.6x/6.0
    • Compaq (1992)
    • Compaq (New version)
    • IBM (PS/2, Activa, Thinkpad)
    • Packard Bell
    • Phoenix 1.00.09.AC0 (1994), a486 1.03, 1.04, 1.10 A03, 4.05 rev 1.02.943, 4.06 rev 1.13.1107
    • Phoenix 4 release 6 (User)
    • Gateway Solo – Phoenix 4.0 release 6
    • Toshiba
    • Zenith AMI

    With CmosPwd, you can also backup, restore, erase or even kill the CMOS. CmosPwd is included in the Hirens Boot CD DOS programs menu. Select “9. Next” -> “2. BIOS/CMOS Tools” -> “2. BIOS Cracker 5.0 (cmospwd)”. There’s also a version you can run from within Windows which is available on the CGSecurity website along with some useful information.

    !Bios by eleventh alliance

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    !Bios is a tool that was developed for a brute force attack on BIOS passwords. You can also backup and restore the BIOS and there’s even a Blaster option where can blank certain parts of the BIOS in the hope of removing the password, a powerful and potentially dangerous option because it could completely corrupt the BIOS. !Bios can try and crack the passwords used in some common BIOSes including various versions by IBM, American Megatrends (AMI), Award and also Phoenix. It’s a very old tool dating back to the late 90’s so is unlikely to work effectively on more recent computers.

    Like CmosPwd, !Bios is also included in the Dos Programs menu of Hirens Boot CD. Select “9. Next” -> “2. BIOS/CMOS Tools” -> “4. !BIOS 3.20 (ibios)”. You can also download a separate !Bios Windows tool.

    Invalidating the CMOS Checksum Manually

    If you prefer to do it manually rather than relying on automated programs or the other tools like CMOS De-Animator aren’t working, it is possible to reset the BIOS password by using the debug.exe tool which will invalidate the CMOS checksum in a similar way to CMOS De-Animator. This can be achieved by typing two commands into the debug tool if you first boot up the computer in FreeDOS. Here are the instructions.

    1. Install FreeDOS on a USB flash drive using Rufus or UNetbootin.

    2. Download the debug.exe tool and save it to the root of your USB flash drive.

    3. Boot up the computer with your USB flash drive and type the following commands: (take note that the second and third commands start with the letter O and not the number zero.)

    4. Restart your computer with Ctrl + Alt + Del and you should encounter an error message like “CMOS checksum error” which is normal. You can now access the CMOS setup without entering a password.

    • Page History
    • Login to edit

    This page describes methods for using the Ubuntu Live CD for recovering from different kinds of problems. If you do not have an Ubuntu disk, please refer to GettingUbuntu. If you have any issues booting the LiveCD, please have a look at the BootFromCD page. Most of the methods described below can also be used from RecoveryMode

    Lost Password

    Here is how you can use the Live CD to change the administrative password on your machine if you have lost/forgot the current password. Please note that you can usually boot into RecoveryMode and run the passwd command directly.

      Boot the Ubuntu Live CD.

    sudo mount /dev/sda1 /mnt

    If you created a custom partition layout when installing Ubuntu you have to find your root partition using the fdisk utility. See the section Finding your root partition.

    You can now use the passwd command to reset a password.

    Note: In the mount command, /dev/sda1 will need to be replaced with the partition where the root of the file system resides.

    Add User to a Group

    If you have removed yourself from a group, you can use the following to add yourself again. Please note that you can usually use RecoveryMode and run the adduser command directly.

      Boot the Ubuntu Live CD.

    sudo mount /dev/sda1 /mnt

    sudo chroot /mnt

    adduser username groupname

    Update Failure

    If there was an update that made your system non-bootable and they have fixed it in the repositories, you can use the Live CD to run apt-get to get the new files to fix your system.

      Boot the Ubuntu Live CD.

    sudo mount /dev/sda1 /mnt

    sudo mount –bind /dev /mnt/dev

    sudo mount –bind /proc /mnt/proc

    sudo mount –bind /sys /mnt/sys

    sudo chroot /mnt

    If you have trouble accessing your network after chroot, you probably use DHCP and can work around this by adding OpenDNS name servers to your /etc/resolv.conf after you use chroot:

    Finding your root partition

    If you created a custom partition layout during the Ubuntu installation, your root partition is probably not /dev/sda1 or /dev/sda1. If you do not know which partition corresponds to your root partition you can use the following procedure to find your root partition. We assume you have booted the live cd and are at the terminal.

    If you are not using a software raid setup or have setup your partitions using LVM/2 or EVMS your IDE/SATA/SCSI devices should be accessible through the files /dev/hd[a-z] and /dev/sd[a-z]. /dev/hda corresponds to the primary master device on your IDE bus, while /dev/sda is your first SCSI/SATA device. If you are using software raid, LVM, LVM2 or EVMS, your devices may be listed in the following directories:

    with their device (software raid) or partition name. You can learn more about Linux partitions here: http://tldp.org/HOWTO/Partition

    Now use the fdisk utility to list the partitions on a device. Let’s assume that you installed Ubuntu to the fist IDE disk. Type the following:

    This will produce some output like this:

    That means you have two standard Linux partitions on your disk: /dev/sda6 and /dev/sda7. You can now try to mount them and see if your Ubuntu installation is there. In this case /dev/sda7 is probably not the root partition, because it is only about 50MiB in size (see the Blocks column). Therefore we mount /dev/sda6:

    Now show the files on the partition:

    If this command shows something like:

    it is a partition holding a Linux distribution. You can check if it really is Ubuntu (if you have multiple linux installations on your disk) using the following command:

    That will give you some information about the distribution (if this file does not exist, it is probably not Ubuntu). If it is the wrong partition, just unmount it: sudo umount /mnt and try another partition on the same disk or choose a different partition on another disk (using fdisk as before).

    Recover Grub 2

    Recover Grub

    If you install some other system, or change drives and lose your Grub bootloader. For more information please have a look at the Grub page.

      Boot the Ubuntu Live CD.

    Press Ctrl-Alt-F1
    Find the partition where your /boot directory is (normally the root partition) check the previous tip for that.

    sudo mount /dev/sda1 /mnt

    sudo chroot /mnt

    find /boot/grub/stage1 (will output a partition name like (hd0,3) )

    quit

  • Now restart the system and remove the Live CD
  • The GUI Way: Reinstalling Grub

    1. Boot your computer with the Ubuntu CD
    2. Go through the installation process until you reach “[. ] Disk Partition”
    3. Select Manual Partition
    4. Mount your appropriate linux partions:
      • /
      • /boot
      • swap
      • .

    DO NOT FORMAT THEM.

  • Finish the manual partition
  • Say “Yes” when it asks you to save the changes
  • It will give you errors saying that “the system couldn’t install . ” after that
  • Ignore them, keep select “continue” until you get back to the Ubuntu installation menu
  • Jump to “Install Grub . “
  • Once it is finished, just restart your computer
  • See also

    LiveCdRecovery (последним исправлял пользователь tsimonq2 2016-03-22 04:04:08)

    I’m looking for a live Linux distribution to boot a machine in Kiosk mode. (Firefox/Chrome + nVidia Driver + VLC)

    These two are pretty good:

    HOWEVER they are paid / trial.

    I’m looking for a gratis and configurable distribution.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    1 Answer 1

    First hit on a Google search for free linux kiosk distro :

    • Porteus kiosk
      The mini distro Porteus has a dedicated mod to support kiosk mode. Provides options to customize as need on first boot.
    • Instant WebKiosk
      Boots from USB key and browser only.
    • Can Bike OS
      Puppy based live-CD OS with a webbrowser and little else.
    • SanicKiosk
      Turn-key web kiosk designed for public libraries, city government, health clinics, and other institutions in need of public information stations. It is intended for easy installation and administration by users with minimal technical knowledge.
    • Ubuntu Guest login
      Normal Ubuntu installation allows guest access from the login prompt. A perfect solution for kiosks. Login into guest mode with restricted permissions but non-restricted browser. Works from USB too.
    • Scientific Linux 6 and CentOS 6
      Both the distros can be configured into kiosk-mode automatically by running this script.
    • Webconverger (Unconfigured edition)
      Runs from USB, easy management console, highly secure, privacy conscious & fool-proof. No vendor lock-in, malware-free & firewall included. The Unconfigured offering is perfectly usable and free of cost.
    • justbrowsing
      A bootable Linux “Live CD” that does not make any changes to the existing operating system on the computer. You can use the browser of your choice. Bundled webapps include a calculator, text editor, timer and more. Settings can be saved to a USB drive.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    Recently, I updated my Ubuntu from 17.10 to 18.04 and after the reboot, the keyboard stopped working. It works on the lock screen but once I am logged in, it’s off duty. Turns out, this is a fairly common problem. The keyboard input driver breaks after every major update, which causes miscommunication between the Ubuntu OS and the input devices.

    You can easily fix this by re-installing the input X Server’s driver again . But since the keyboard is not working in the first place, this gets a bit tricky. So, here is how you fix the keyboard not working after updating your Ubuntu.

    Case 1: Keyboard and Mouse both working on Lock Screen

    If you have the keyboard and trackpad both working on the lock screen, you can directly launch a terminal session by pressing Ctrl + Alt + F3 and skip to this step.

    Case 2: Keyboard not working but Mouse working on Lock Screen

    Step 1: In this case, log in to the system with the help of the screen keyboard. You can enable it by clicking on the Accessibility or Human icon on the top-right corner. Once you are logged in, we need to once again turn on the screen keyboard. For that, open the Settings menu by clicking on the arrow at the top-right corner. Next, click on the gear icon from the extending menu.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    Step 2: In the Settings menu, click on “Universal Access” on the left-hand tab to go to the Hearing and Typing menu.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    Step 3: On the Universal Access menu, navigate to the Typing menu. Click on the slider beside the “Screen Keyboard” text on the on-screen keyboard.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    Step 4: Now that we have the on-screen keyboard, we need the terminal to run the command. To open the terminal, right-click on the Desktop and select Open Terminal.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    Step 5: Once you have the terminal launched, type the following command, and hit Enter.

    At times Ubuntu might try to go fanatical and prompt you for the password even after entering sudo. Just use the on-screen keyboard to enter the password.

    It should again prompt for input, press Y and hit Enter again.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    Once we have the X Server keyboard input drivers installed, reboot your System. When the system is back up and running, you should be able to use your keyboard and mouse.

    Case 3: Keyboard and Mouse both not working

    In case, the keyboard, trackpad, and mouse all are not working for you even on the lock screen, we need to launch the terminal during boot itself. To do that force shutdown the system with the physical keys.

    We would need an external keyboard to trigger a few keys during the boot process. While, the system is starting up, hold down the Shift key after the BIOS load and you will enter the GRUB menu. On the GRUB menu, press “e” to edit boot options. Search for the line which looks like the following.

    Insert “/bin/bash” before $vt_handoff and press Ctrl + X or F10 to reboot. Once you in the command, run the following command and reboot back the system again.

    Upon reboot, you should have the keyboard and mouse working for you.

    Changing the GRUB file is a temporary change and not persistent. So if the boot crashes, just restart the system and it should be back to normal.

    What if re-installing the drivers doesn’t work?

    If none of the above methods work for you, then there are 2 minor tweaks you can do to try and fix the keyword and mouse.

    Turn off bounce keys and slow keys

    Ubuntu provides certain accessibility settings like Bounce keys or Slow keys. In case you don’t know, Bounce keys ignores fast keypresses whereas Slow keys require you to press the keys for a certain amount of time. In case a third-party app or you have mistakenly turned on these settings, it’s may lead to faulty working of the keyword.

    To turn off Bounce and Slow keys, head over to the Settings menu. You can access the Settings menu by clicking on the arrow at the top-right corner. Next, click on the gear icon from the extending menu.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    On the Settings menu, click on “Universal Access“.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-modeUnder the Universal Access menu, scroll down and click on “Typing Assist (AccessX)“.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    From the pop-up menu, make sure the toggle besides the “Bounce keys” and “Slow Keys” is turned off.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    Update Ubuntu

    Finally, if nothing works out, you can try and upgrade the Ubuntu packages. This might fix the broken driver and enable your keyboard and trackpad to function properly.

    To upgrade your Ubuntu system, we would need to run a few commands on the terminal. To do that, right-click on the desktop and click on “Open Terminal“.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    On the terminal type the following command to update the package list.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    Once the package list has been upgraded successfully, we can upgrade all the packages with the following command. Do note that, this command will take a lot of time. So, sit aback and sip it!

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    Wrapping Up

    In case none of the methods have worked, a clean Ubuntu installation is required. However, make sure you have backed up your data beforehand. You can also read our other articles on 15 must-have apps on Ubuntu right after a fresh install and how to run Linux on Windows with a virtual box.

    Let me know in the comments below in case of any issues or queries.

    Pratik

    Pratik works as an In-house writer and video host at TechWiser. Former Programmer, Current writer. Loves tech in any form, quite optimistic about AI, data science and IoT. Talks extremely less but you betcha can geek out over anything on Twitter.

    A kiosk is a computer terminal available to the public that provides specific information and applications.

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    This article will help you to set up the Micro 4 and Neo R (Thinux).

    NETWORK SETTINGS

    By default, both Micro 4 and Neo R run the DHCP protocol to assign the IP address to the device but if you want to put a static IP address to the system, you can change it by the following steps:

      Click on the network icon which is on the top right of the taskbar. You will see a drop-down menu once you click on the network icon. After this, you need to click on the edit connections section.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    Navigate to the IPV4 tab. Click on the drop-down menu which shows automatic and select the manual option from it.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    Click on the add button and mention the static IP address which you want to assign to the system. You can also assign the netmask and gateway here.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    Click on save and windows. Click on the network icon again and click on the Wired connection option to apply your changes. You can also use a command to restart the network.

    sudo service network-manager restart

    CONFIGURE REMMINA

    Click on the following link to configure Remmina in your thin client.

    ENABLE KIOSK MODE

    Follow the steps to enable the Kiosk mode in the Micro 4 and Neo R

    • Navigate to the Start menu of the Thinclient. Click on settings and then, click on the Enable Kiosk Mode option.
    • It will ask for the password to enable the Kiosk mode. Put Thinux as the password. Next, it will ask you to reboot the system. You need to click on yes.
    • Once the reboot is complete, you will see the RDP connection window. Click on Configure and click on the connection number 1 or any other number to make changes.
    • Now you will see the configuration window where you configure the server IP. In the Server address mention the IP address of the server to whom you want to connect.
    • If your network has a domain name then, mention in the Domain field.
    • Mention the username and password of the Windows/Linux user to whom you want to connect in the Username Password field.
    • If you want your thin client to automatically connect to the server whenever you power on the system, you need to check the Autoconnect option to yes, otherwise leave it to no.
    • Click on ok to Save your configuration. After that, you will return on the main RDP connection window and you will see your configured server information in the window. Select the connection number and click on OK. After this, you will be connected to the remote server.

    Click on the following link to see how to enable KIOSK mode in the thin clients:

    I have a project in which I ran git init . After several commits, I did git status which told me everything was up to date and there were no local changes.

    Then I made several consecutive changes and realized I wanted to throw everything away and get back to my original state. Will this command do it for me?

    17 Answers 17

    If you want to revert changes made to your working copy, do this:

    Or equivalently, for git version >= 2.23:

    If you want to revert changes made to the index (i.e., that you have added), do this. Warning this will reset all of your unpushed commits to master!:

    If you want to revert a change that you have committed, do this:

    If you want to remove untracked files (e.g., new files, generated files):

    Or untracked directories (e.g., new or automatically generated directories):

    Note: You may also want to run

    will not remove untracked files, where as git-clean will remove any files from the tracked root directory that are not under git tracking. WARNING – BE CAREFUL WITH THIS! It is helpful to run a dry-run with git-clean first, to see what it will delete.

    This is also especially useful when you get the error message

    Which can occur when doing several things, one being updating a working copy when you and your friend have both added a new file of the same name, but he’s committed it into source control first, and you don’t care about deleting your untracked copy.

    In this situation, doing a dry run will also help show you a list of files that would be overwritten.

    • ✅ Deletes local, non-pushed commits
    • ✅ Reverts changes you made to tracked files
    • ✅ Restores tracked files you deleted
    • ✅ Deletes files/dirs listed in .gitignore (like build files)
    • ✅ Deletes files/dirs that are not tracked and not in .gitignore
    • 😀 You won’t forget this approach
    • 😔 Wastes bandwidth

    Following are other commands I forget daily.

    • ❌ Deletes local, non-pushed commits
    • ✅ Reverts changes you made to tracked files
    • ✅ Restores tracked files you deleted
    • ✅ Deletes files/dirs listed in .gitignore (like build files)
    • ✅ Deletes files/dirs that are not tracked and not in .gitignore
    • ❌ Deletes local, non-pushed commits
    • ❌ Reverts changes you made to tracked files
    • ❌ Restores tracked files you deleted
    • ✅ Deletes files/dirs listed in .gitignore (like build files)
    • ✅ Deletes files/dirs that are not tracked and not in .gitignore
    • ❌ Deletes local, non-pushed commits
    • ✅ Reverts changes you made to tracked files
    • ✅ Restores tracked files you deleted
    • ❌ Deletes files/dirs listed in .gitignore (like build files)
    • ❌ Deletes files/dirs that are not tracked and not in .gitignore

    Notes

    Test case for confirming all the above (use bash or sh):

    See also

    • git revert to make new commits that undo prior commits
    • git checkout to go back in time to prior commits (may require running above commands first)
    • git stash same as git reset above, but you can undo it

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    If you want to revert all changes AND be up-to-date with the current remote master (for example you find that the master HEAD has moved forward since you branched off it and your push is being ‘rejected’) you can use

    After reading a bunch of answers and trying them, I’ve found various edge cases that mean sometimes they don’t fully clean the working copy.

    Here’s my current bash script for doing it, which works all the time.

    Run from working copy root directory.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    Look into git-reflog. It will list all the states it remembers (default is 30 days), and you can simply checkout the one you want. For example:

    it will remove all your local changes. and you can also use it later by executing –

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    DANGER AHEAD: (please read the comments. Executing the command proposed in my answer might delete more than you want)

    to completely remove all files including directories I had to run

    I met a similar problem. The solution is to use git log to look up which version of the local commit is different from the remote. (E.g. the version is 3c74a11530697214cbcc4b7b98bf7a65952a34ec ).

    Then use git reset –hard 3c74a11530697214cbcc4b7b98bf7a65952a34ec to revert the change.

    Try this if you are in top project directory:

    If not then use:

    If you would like to revert local changes for a subset:

    • restore all working tree files with top pathspec magic: git restore :/
    • restore all files in the current directory: git restore .
    • file type (e.g. all C source files): git restore ‘*.c’

    To remove untracked files: git clean -f

    I searched for a similar issue,

    Wanted to throw away local commits:

    1. cloned the repository (git clone)
    2. switched to dev branch (git checkout dev)
    3. did few commits (git commit -m “commit 1”)
    4. but decided to throw away these local commits to go back to remote (origin/dev)

    So did the below:

    now local commits are lost, back to the initial cloned state, point 1 above.

    How to reset any changes to your ubuntu computer and add kiosk-mode

    Try this for revert all changes uncommited in local branch

    But if you see a error like this:

    You can navigate to ‘.git’ folder then delete index.lock file:

    Finaly, run again the command:

    You may not necessarily want/need to stash your work/files in your working directory but instead simply get rid of them completely. The command git clean will do this for you.

    Some common use cases for doing this would be to remove cruft that has been generated by merges or external tools or remove other files so that you can run a clean build.

    Keep in mind you will want to be very cautious of this command, since its designed to remove files from your local working directory that are NOT TRACKED. if you suddently change your mind after executing this command, there is no going back to see the content of the files that were removed. An alternative which is safer is to execute

    which will remove everything but save it all in a stash. This stash can then later be used.

    However, if you truly DO want to remove all the files and clean your working directory, you should execute

    This will remove any files and also any sub-directories that don’t have any items as a result of the command. A smart thing to do before executing the git clean -f -d command is to run

    which will show you a preview of what WILL be removed after executing git clean -f -d

    So here is a summary of your options from most aggressive to least aggressive

    Option 1: Remove all files locally(Most aggressive)

    Option 2: Preview the above impact(Preview most aggressive)

    Option 3: Stash all files (Least aggressive)