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How to troubleshoot google chrome crashes

Google Chrome has gained popularity as one of the most reputable browsers owing to its many helpful features and great performance. However, at times Chrome can be frustrating due to crashing unexpectedly preventing you from accessing some websites or even opening the browser at all. Before you think of shifting to a different browser, let’s see how you can fix some of the common Chrome crashing issues.

How to Fix Google Chrome Crashing Problems?

  1. Reopen browser.
  2. End memory consuming processes.
  3. Update Chrome.
  4. Disable Chrome extension.
  5. Change Chrome profile.
  6. Cleanup computer and reset Chrome.
  7. Uninstall and re-install Chrome.

1. Reopen Browser

The best starting point is to close and reopen the browser:

  • On Windows, go to the menu at the top-right corner and click “Exit” at the bottom of the menu list. Or Using keyboard shortcut “Ctrl + Shift + Q” to exit Chrome.
  • On Mac, go to “Chrome” menu and choose “Quit Google Chrome” option.
  • Re-launch Chrome and check whether the issue has been fixed.

2. Fixing Chrome Memory Usage Problems

Chrome may crash as a result of high RAM utilization, and you can try the following options to fix the problem. Close the tabs that are not in use by opening the Chrome task manager and other apps running on your computer.

  • Click on the Chrome menu and hover the mouse over “More tools” the select “Task Manager”.
  • Select the tabs you would like to close and click on the “End Process” button.
  • Close other applications that could be draining the PC RAM and reload Chrome.
  • If the problem persists, restart your PC and this may solve the Chrome problem.

3. Check for Chrome Updates

There could be new Chrome updates that could fix the underlying crashing problem. To check for updates in Chrome;

  • Go to the Chrome drop-down menu at the top-right corner of the browser window.
  • Float the mouse over the “Help” option and select “About Google Chrome”.
  • Chrome will check for any new updates then you can install them.

4. Disable Chrome Extensions

Too many or harmful extensions can cause the Chrome browser to crash.

  • First open the crashing page in “incognito window” by clicking the menu icon at the top-right corner of the Chrome window. Then select “New incognito window”.
  • Copy and paste the page URL in the new window and see if it will load correctly. If the page loads in incognito mode, then extensions are the cause of the problem.
  • Type “chrome://extensions/” and hit the “Enter” key. This will open the “Extension” settings window.
  • Toggle off the switch to disable a particular extension or select “Remove” to uninstall the extension.
  • Disable the extensions one at a time while testing the page to identify the exact extension causing Chrome to crash.
  • Restart the browser.

5. Change the Chrome Profile

Shifting to a new Chrome profile can fix the crashing problem.

  • Click the user profile icon at top right corner of your browser screen and select “Manage people”.
  • From the resulting window, click on the “Add person” button.
  • Give the new user a name and click “Add” at the right-bottom corner of the window.
  • Restart Chrome in the newly created profile.

6. Cleanup Computer and Reset Settings

Malicious programs or browser settings can be the cause of the Chrome crashing issues and scanning and removing them could be the ultimate solution. To use Chrome in-built clean up tool;

  • Type “chrome://settings/” on the address bar and press “Enter” to open the “Settings” screen.
  • Scroll down and click “Advanced” at the bottom of the screen.
  • Scroll down again to find the “Reset and clean up” section, then select “Clean up computer”.
  • Under “Find and remove harmful software” click “Find”. Chrome will check and suggest the harmful software.
  • To reset the Chrome settings to default, click the back arrow and go back to settings page. Under “Reset and clean up” section, chose the “Restore settings to their original defaults” option.
  • Click “Reset” button when prompted.

7. Uninstall and Re-Install Chrome

If the above alternatives didn’t solve the crashing problem then it could be a serious one which requires you to re-install Chrome in your device. To uninstall Chrome:

  • Type “control in the Windows Cortana and click on “Control Panel”.
  • From the control panel, select “Programs”.
  • Select “Google Chrome” and click “Uninstall”.
  • Install new Chrome from official page.

Wrapping Up

In summary, Chrome crashing issues can be caused by various error in your browser or computer system. The best approach is to try and troubleshoot and find the source of the problem starting with the simple to the advanced fixes. If the problem doesn’t go away, you may have to uninstall and reinstall Chrome afresh.

@chrisbhoffman
Updated July 10, 2017, 1:23pm EDT

How to troubleshoot google chrome crashes

If you are regularly seeing the “Whoa! Google Chrome has crashed” message, there is likely a problem on your system. An occasional crash can happen, but regular crashes are probably caused by something you can fix.

If you are curious just how often Chrome is crashing, you can type chrome://crashes into your location bar and press Enter to view a list of crashes and when they occurred. This is just one of Chrome’s many hidden chrome:// pages.

Run the Google Software Removal Tool

Google just launched a new tool that will help you clean up your Chrome browser from anything that is interfering with normal operation.

All you need to do is navigate to www.google.com/chrome/srt/ and click the Download now button.

How to troubleshoot google chrome crashes

When it restarts it’ll ask you to reset your browser, which can be really helpful in preventing crashes and other problems.

Check For Conflicting Software

Some software on your computer can conflict with Google Chrome and cause it to crash. This includes malware and network-related software that interferes with Google Chrome.

Google Chrome has a hidden page that will tell you if any software on your system is known to conflict with Google Chrome. To access it, type chrome://conflicts into Chrome’s address bar and press Enter.

How to troubleshoot google chrome crashes

You can also check the Software that crashes Google Chrome page on Google’s website for a list of software that causes Chrome to crash. The page includes instructions for solving conflicts with some conflicting software.

If you have conflicting software on your system, you should update it to the latest version, disable it, or uninstall it. If you are not sure which software a module is related to, try Googling the name of the library.

Scan for Malware

Malware can also interfere with Google Chrome and cause it to crash. If you are encountering regular crashes, you should scan your computer with antivirus software like Microsoft Security Essentials. If you already have antivirus software installed, you may want to get a second opinion from another antivirus program.

How to troubleshoot google chrome crashes

Solve Flash Crashes

We have found that the Flash plugin Chrome includes can cause it to crash in some cases. If you are seeing regular Shockwave Flash crashes, you may want to try disabling the internal Flash plugin and using the standard Flash plugin in Google Chrome.

How to troubleshoot google chrome crashes

Switch to a New Profile

Chrome crashes may be caused by a corrupted profile. You can test this by creating a new profile from Chrome’s Settings screen. Open the Settings page from Chrome’s menu and click Add new user under Users.

Change to the new profile after creating it and see if the crashes continue to occur. You can sign into Chrome with your Google account to sync the data from your old profile. However, Google recommends you don’t copy any files from the old profile folder by hand – they may be corrupted and causing the problem.

How to troubleshoot google chrome crashes

Fix System File Problems

Google recommends running the SFC.EXE /SCANNOW program to check for – and fix – problems with protected system files on your Windows system if you are encountering crashes. To do this, locate the Command Prompt in your Start menu (press the Windows key and type Command Prompt), right-click it, and select Run as Administrator.

How to troubleshoot google chrome crashes

Type the following command in the Command Prompt window and press Enter:

Windows will scan your computer for problems with system files sand fix any problems it finds.

How to troubleshoot google chrome crashes

Hardware issues can also cause Chrome crashes. You may want to test your computer’s RAM and ensure it isn’t faulty.

Google Chrome is one of the popular browsers that is preferred by billions of users due to its advanced features. Besides all the advantages the browser has some inherent issues that need to be addressed as well.

Google Chrome users are familiar with a crash page that displays the infamous Aw, Snap message. The page is displayed every time a user is unable to access a specific web page. However, at the moment the crash page doesn’t inform users about the actual cause behind the page crash.

This situation is pretty much frustrating for web users who are interested in troubleshooting the issue. The problem was reported by several users on different platforms. The good news is, Google has already started to work on a solution to this problem.

A Chromium code commit shows that Google plans to make it easier for Chrome users to troubleshoot the issues. Google plans to facilitate the troubleshooting process by adding error codes on the error page. Consequently, Chrome users would be using the error codes to diagnose the actual cause behind the error.

Google explains the change in a commit titled “Show crash exit code on sad tab page”.

“To aid in troubleshooting of crashed tabs, display the renderer process’ exit code on the sad tab page.”

Support Articles Coming Soon

The code change request is driven by a bug report “put crash exit code on sad tab page” last month. Google has also provided some mockups to show how the error page would be redesigned:

“To make it easier to diagnose user reports of the sad tab, perhaps we could consider putting the crash exit code on the sad tab as we do for SSL errors. Then users can google for the error, we can seed help center pages to help users, everyone wins.”

How to troubleshoot google chrome crashesSource: Chromium Gerrit

Chrome users who want to diagnose the issue may need to read some additional documentation to understand the error codes. Once the change is rolled out, a quick search of the error code will allow you to understand the error message.

In addition to the revamped error page, Google’s Help Center team is also working on the support articles. Chrome users can read those articles to know more about the diagnosing process. The new error page will be available for all platforms including Windows, Mac, Chrome OS, and Linux.

It remains to be seen when Google engineers complete the development and testing process. You can keep an eye on the Chromium Gerrit page to track the progress.

Is your Chrome browser keeps crashing in your windows 10 PC? It is a commonly occurring issue with the famous browser, but we will show you how to avoid the continuous crash problem.

How to troubleshoot google chrome crashes

David Darlington

Nov 13, 2020 • Filed to: Windows Computer Solutions • Proven solutions

Chrome browser is unarguably the most used and popular web browser in history as it controls approximately 37.71% of the market share. However, it doesn’t mean that the browser is flawless as it does have several issues of its own, including the continuous crashing of the browser on Windows 10 computers.

In this article, we will discuss why does the Chrome browser keep on crashing frequently and what are the ways to solve the crash problem.

  • Part 1: Why is My Google Chrome Keep Crashing?
  • Part 2: How to Solve Chrome Crashing Windows 10 Issue?

Part 1: Why My Google Chrome Keeps on Crashing?

The Chrome browser sucks a whole lot of energy from the computer, which is evident due to its multitasking abilities. It could also cause the browser to crash if it isn’t receiving enough memory from the RAM. Here are some of the factors that could be causing the Chrome browser to crash:

  • You have had accidentally installed malware on the browser or the computer;
  • You have opened too many tabs and websites on the browser, resulting it to lower its efficiency;
  • There is something wrong with the network adapter of your PC.

Part 2: How to Solve Chrome Crashing Windows 10 Issue?

Google Chromes sudden crash problem on Windows 10 is easily fixable and here are the three best methods to do that:

  • Solution 1. Close Tabs and Disable Extensions;
  • Solution 2. Use the No-Sandbox Flag;
  • Solution 3. Run a Virus Scan;

Solution 1. Close Tabs and Disable Extensions:

The Chrome browser permits a whole lot of freedom and utilities within its program, which includes the option to open multiple websites with new tabs, and extensions to enable extra features within the browser, such as using a VPN and managing Email. But, the excess of anything is never good, as it could also cause the Chrome browser to crash. You can stop the frequent crashing of the browser by disabling some extensions that you do not often use and closing the tabs inside the browser. Here are the steps to disable an extension on Chrome:

  • Open the Chrome browser and enter “chrome://extensions” on the address bar;
  • Click on the toggle bar to disable the extensions.

Solution 2. Use the No-Sandbox Flag:

The Sandbox utility inside the Chrome browser allows the developers to test the codes of the browser and to improve the existing system and database. It could also result in frequent crashing of the browser. Here is the method to disable the Sandbox feature of the Chrome browser;

  • Right-click on the Chrome’s icon and click on properties;
  • Click on the “Shortcut” tab,” and after that, you would have to find the “Target” input box;
  • Enter the command: –no-sandbox and click on “OK;”
  • This attempt will disable the sandbox feature on the Chrome browser.

How to troubleshoot google chrome crashes

Solution 3. Run a Virus Scan:

You may have added a malicious malware that could be disrupting the Chrome browser’s ability to perform at full capacity. It is best to perform a system-wide virus scan with the help of reliable antivirus software, other than Windows Defender, which is simply not good enough to detect powerful viruses.

Solution 4. Check and Remove the Incompatible Programs

Google Chrome also allows you to clean the browser through its built-in “Cleaner.” Here is the method do that:

  • Click on “Setting” from the menu tab, available below the top-right corner the browser’s interface;
  • Click on the “Advanced” option and move forward;
  • Now click on the “Clean up the computer” option, which is available beneath the “Reset and clean up” section;
  • Click on “Find Harmful software” and remove the application from Chrome if the scan finds one.

How to troubleshoot google chrome crashes

Conclusion:

Chrome’s unique features made it into a giant in the game of web browsers. A success, which has been hard for its competitors to match. But, ever so often, some virus infection or software glitch could cause the browser to crash. However, such a problem is not a big deal as it is efficiently solvable thanks to the four solutions that we discussed in this guide.

If you have a friend whose Google Chrome isn’t working to its full potential and keeps on crashing, then show them this article so that they would be able to fix the problem sooner rather than later.

Last updated on January 7, 2017 By Chad Buenaflor Leave a Comment

Chrome is a browser developed by Google, and it has been one of the best and popular for years. When Chrome was released back in 2008 it received a lot of praise due to its speed and stability . Back at that time, browsers like Mozilla Firefox and Internet Explorer were virtually unopposed, and it caused Microsoft and Mozilla to rethink their ideas.

Over the time Chrome has matured in the previous 5 years which means a lot of new and useful features has been been added but every change has a chance of causing a bug which degrades performance and these bugs often result in messages like “Aw, Snap!”

If your are seeing these messages regularly then you are in deep trouble (don’t panic, we will help you fix it!). Occasional crashes happen and they are normal but, regular crashes are annoying and they are caused by something you can fix.

If you are curious you can find out the the list of crashes that occur in Chrome by typing chrome://crashes in your address bar.

Scan For Malware

Malware can interfere with Google Chrome and cause it to crash, not only your browser but they can also negatively affect your computers performance. If you are facing frequent crashes, you should scan your computer with an antivirus program like AVG Free Antivirus. If you already have one installed on your system, you might want considering scanning your computer with another antivirus program.

Solve Flash Crashes

We have found out that the flash plugin built in Chrome doesn’t get along with the Flash you install due to which it can crash. If you are experiencing frequent Shockwave Flash crashes you might need to disable the internal flash plugin and continue using the built in Google Chrome plugin.

Fix The Problems In System Files

SFC.EXE/ SCANNOW is the program recommended by Google to scan your protected system files and fix the problems inside your Windows system if you are encountering crashes. To do this, locate the Command Prompt in your Start menu (press the Windows key and type Command Prompt), right-click it, and select Run as Administrator.

After the Command Prompt window opens up, type the following command SFC.EXE/ SCANNOW and Windows will scan your computer for problems with system files and fix any problems it finds.

Switch To A New Profile

A corrupted profile may also result in crashing Google Chrome. You can test this by creating a new profile in Chrome, open the settings page from Chrome’s menu and click Add new user.

Switch to the new profile you just created and see if Google Chrome crashes. If everything is working smoothly you can sign into Chrome with your Google account and sync all the settings, apps, bookmarks etc.

Check For Software Conflicting With Chrome

Google Chrome has a hidden page that will show you the applications on the system known to conflict with Chrome. To open it, type chrome://conflicts into Chrome’s address bar and press enter.

Disclaimer

Unfortunately, we’re not able to provide adequate Google Chrome support here in this article, we have also not covered all operating systems. I recommend to post them in the Google Chrome Forums. Dozens of experts and official Google employees will review your situation and try to solve the problem!

However, if you still want to share your issues feel free to post a comment in the comment section below and we will try to help you as soon as possible and point you in the right direction. And if any of the guidelines above helped to solve your problem, we would love to hear your feedback in the comments!

How to troubleshoot google chrome crashes

How to Troubleshoot Google Chrome Crashes ?

Google Chrome is one of the most popular browsers these days, due to low foot-print and good performance. But there may be times when you find that your Chrome browser crashes or freezes randomly on your Windows 8 or Windows 7 computer, while browsing, opening a tab, loading a page or downloading. This can be really annoying at times!

Today i am going to Show you How to Troubleshoot Google Chrome Crashes.

Try restarting the browser :-

Whenever possible, Google Chrome will restore webpages from your previous browsing session.

Do you have Internet Download Manager installed?

If you have Internet Download Manager installed, update to IDM version 6.15 Beta or disable the “Advanced browser integration” option by going to Options > General.

How to troubleshoot google chrome crashes

Check for conflicting software :-

You can check for conflicting software on Windows by typing chrome://conflicts/ in the address bar. If you have software that is known to cause Google Chrome to crash, it will be highlighted for you on this page, along with any recommended actions to resolve the conflict. In many cases, the conflicting software is malware that needs to be removed using anti-virus software.

How to troubleshoot google chrome crashes

Disable Unsupported Plugins :- Open chrome://plugins/ and disable the unwanted plugins

How to troubleshoot google chrome crashes

Check whether you need a new browser user profile :- If you see this error message repeatedly, your browser user profile may be corrupted. First try moving the Default subfolder from your User Data folder to see if that fixes the problem:

  1. Enter the keyboard shortcut Windows key +E to open Windows Explorer.
  2. In the Windows Explorer window that appears enter the following in the address bar:Windows
    • Windows XP: %USERPROFILE%Local SettingsApplication DataGoogleChromeUser Data
    • Windows Vista/ Windows 7/ Windows 8: %LOCALAPPDATA%GoogleChromeUser Data

Mac OS X:

Linux:

/.config/google-chrome/Default

  • Click OK.
  • In the window that opens, rename the “Default” folder as “Backup.”
  • Move the “Backup” folder from the “User Data” folder up one level to the “Chrome” folder.
  • Upon opening the Google Chrome Browser, the browser kept crashing after 5 seconds (the window closed). The only way to fix it was to delete the google folder from the appdata, local folder, under IT guidance. Is this a Microsoft Operating System problem or a Google Chrome problem? Regardless of which, you should post this into your support search engine so others who experience it can fix it for themselves if you choose not to provide support for applications crashing on your operating system. Shouldn’t there be a log file that can be read on the operating system to see real quick why an app is crashing that you could provide support for? I had to use my work IT support because Google Chrome doesn’t provide support to personal users so no anwers were available. Fortunately, the IT professional was able to walk me through it, though he does not recommend that as a solution. There could be many reasons that an app could fail, including hardware failure. Someone should take responsibility for ‘third party support’ that is supposed to work on your operating system. I could not get support from HP, Microsoft, or Google. It seems to me that you already provide technical support through your search engine for common problems with Google Chrome, probably because they are failing to provide support to users. no acceptable answer to the problem. I am not blaming Microsoft, but I think that it is high time that there is a support team that provides third-party app support when a user is getting stonewalled.

    Thank you for looking into this matter and take my concerns under consideration. It seems to me that it is a joint responsibility between the operating system mfr and the application mfr.

    Please let me know if you will address this and put it on your search engine for others or address it with Google so that they can address it. I don’t have support access to Google because I don’t own a business.

    Thank you and regards,

    *** Email address is removed for privacy ***

    Google Chrome is Google’s web browser. At the time of writing this article, Google Chrome has a market share of approximately 66 percent. Google Chrome is available for Mac, Windows, Linux, iOS, and Android. It contains many features that make the use of the browser attractive for the user.

    However, because Google Chrome contains so much functionality, there are of course errors in Google Chrome. These errors can cause Google Chrome to crash. In this article, I will focus on problems with Google Chrome for Mac. Some of these tips can also be implemented in Chrome for Windows.

    Google Chrome is known for its many features. However, this functionality also consumes a lot of memory of the Mac computer. This can slow down your Mac computer considerably, especially with older Mac computers. Also, the battery in your Mac can run down faster due to this functionality.

    Some crashes might occur in Google Chrome if too many new tabs are opened. Every web page opened in Google Chrome consumes computer memory, especially Youtube and Gmail are large users.

    Also, browser extensions are often a problem in Google Chrome. Extensions are meant to add functionality to the Chrome browser. However, poorly programmed extensions can also cause Chrome problems, such as freezes or websites that don’t fully load.

    In this tutorial, you will find some solutions that can help you if Google Chrome crashes regularly.

    Google Chrome for Mac crashes

    Free up disk space on Mac

    A common problem with Mac computers is that a program crashes due to a lack of disk space. Google Chrome, in particular, uses a lot of temporary files to load websites faster. If your Mac has little disk space Google Chrome can become slow, the website won’t load properly, and eventually crash.

    Remove temporary files

    Google Chrome keeps track of many temporary files, such as cookies and site settings. I recommend that you regularly delete these temporary files in Google Chrome. Please note that you would need to log in to websites again if you delete cookies if you had enabled automatic login.

    In the address bar of Google Chrome on your Mac type: chrome://settings/clearBrowserData

    How to troubleshoot google chrome crashes

    Click on the Basis tab and set the period to All time. Click the options you want to clear from Google Chrome and click Clear Data.

    Check browser extensions

    I recommend if Google Chrome crashes to check the installed browser extensions. If necessary, disable all extensions and try again without activated extensions. If you no longer experience problems with Google Chrome then you know that the disabled extension(s) is causing the problem.

    In the address bar of Google Chrome on your Mac type: chrome://extensions

    How to troubleshoot google chrome crashes

    Click the blue-button to disable the extension. This will not delete the extension, but will temporarily disable it.

    If you want to delete an extension click on…Yes, the delete button. I recommend not to install too many and only the necessary browser extensions for you in Google Chrome. Extensions slow down Google Chrome considerably and often cause problems.

    Disable hardware acceleration

    If Google Chrome often crashes for no reason then you can try to solve the problem by disabling hardware acceleration.

    In the address bar of Google Chrome type: chrome://settings/?search=hardware

    How to troubleshoot google chrome crashes

    Click on the blue button next to “Use hardware acceleration when available”.

    Important to know. If you disable hardware acceleration, watching videos on Youtube, Netflix, etc. will become almost impossible.

    Reinstall Google Chrome

    It may be a rigorous approach, but reinstalling Google Chrome can solve many problems.

    First, open a new browser like Safari. Copy and paste the URL of this article and open it in Safari. You will need to close Google Chrome and delete files. If Google Chrome is opened on this page it will not work.

    Open Finder. Click on Apps in the left menu. Find Google Chrome and right-click on Google Chrome, choose Move to Recycle Bin.

    Open Finder again. At the top of the menu bar click on Go and then on Go to folder. In the field type:

    Select all folders and files in the “Chrome” folder and right-click. In the menu choose, Move to trash.

    Go to Google.com/chrome download Google Chrome and reinstall. Synchronize your Google account and Google Chrome is reinstalled.

    I hope this has helped you. Thank you for reading!

    Ionut Ilascu
    • October 25, 2019
    • 03:21 AM
    • 9

    How to troubleshoot google chrome crashes

    Google Chrome updated to version 78 a few days ago and some users have been experiencing “Aw, Snap!” crashes instead of the promised features.

    This disruption occurs when launching the web browser on systems with an outdated version of Symantec Endpoint Protection (SEP).

    Incompatibility problem

    Since the release of the newest Google Chrome on Tuesday, a large number of users started to complain that they could not use it.

    When starting Chrome, users would see the “Aw Snap!” message specific to a page crash.

    Most of the reports came from users that did not have the latest version of Symantec Endpoint Protection installed. An investigation from both Google and Symantec confirmed this to be true.

    In a blog post on Thursday, Symantec explains that the problem is an incompatibility between the Application Control technology in its product and Microsoft’s Code Integrity feature enabled in Chrome browser.

    Microsoft Edge Chromium is also impacted by this issue but the browser has not been officially released so the user base affected is limited.

    The solutions

    Symantec details that systems affected by this problem are Windows Server 2012, 2016, and Windows 10 RS1 with any version of SEP installed.

    Any other Windows operating systems running a version of SEP older than 14.2 are also impacted. On these, updating to the latest SEP should fix the issue.

    A workaround exists for all other cases and it consists of adding an Application Control exception for the Google Chrome and Microsoft Edge Chromium executables (Chrome.exe and MSEdge.exe).

    An alternative to this is to run Chrome with the Code Integrity feature disabled, which can be achieved in two ways:

    or by setting a registry key to 0:

    Since a swarm of users reported the “Aw Snap!” crash problem, Google investigated as well, its conclusion being that an update to SEP 14.2 or above would do away with the incompatibility.

    Disabling the protection in Chrome through the RendererCodeIntegrityEnabled policy in the browser is listed as a solution, too, albeit not a recommended one because it’s purpose is to protect the browser process.

    Some users already reported that updating SEP to the latest version allowed them to use Google Chrome as before.

    Update [10/30/2019]: Google updated its original alert about the possible cause of “Aw Snap!” crashes in Chrome 78. The same issue has been spotted on systems with PC Matic, Print Audit, and Palo Alto Networks’ Traps.

    As a result, the Code Integrity feature has been disabled in the web browser until the software providers and Google work out a way to improve compatibility. This is a temporary measure expected to be reverted in the near future, says Craig Tumblison, Chrome support manager.