How to determine the sex of puppies

Breeders can affect the sex distribution in an unborn litter of puppies.

Posted Jun 26, 2019


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How to Determine the Sex of Puppies

A few years ago I found myself leaning against a wall watching a friend of mine sitting in a large wire exercise pen playing with a litter of eight 7-week-old Beagle puppies. She had asked me to come along while she picked out a puppy, so that I could test the temperament of her chosen dog. While she interacted with the adorable young dogs I chatted with the breeder, a woman who had a fine reputation for producing sound, sociable Beagles.

She gazed at the squiggly group and said to me, “There are six girls and two boys in this litter. This is what we would call a ‘breeders litter,’ because the majority of people who show up looking for a puppy claim that they are looking for a ‘sweet little girl.’ Actually in my experience I find that the males are a wee bit more social and easy-going when it comes to Beagles, but nonetheless that preference in people allows us to charge a small additional premium for the females. Since there is not that much profit in dog breeding, that’s important. I wish there were some kind of recipe which I could use to make it more likely that I would end up with more females in the litters that I breed, but as it is now the sex breakdown in any litter is just a matter of chance.”

I recalled this conversation when a colleague, who is a geneticist at my university, recently forwarded me an article from a journal with the intriguing name Theriogenology. It took me a minute or so to tease apart the roots of that word, but it finally occurred to me that it was composed of three Greek components: therio, which means “beast” but which is usually taken to mean animals in general; genos, which means “birth”; and logos which means “study of.” So theriogenology refers to a branch of veterinary medicine concerned with animal obstetrics and related matters.

The research report that I received comes out of Brazil, and the investigative team was headed by Anna Carolina Lopes Martins, of the Department of Veterinary Medicine at the Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais. In effect, these researchers were trying to see if there was a particular mix of specific characteristics in sires and dams which might produce litters of puppies with a bias toward a greater proportion of males or females.

This study was based on a retrospective analysis of 602 German Shepherd puppies that belonged to 101 litters derived from the mating of 45 dams and 37 sires in a private breeding facility from 1996 to 2016. The dams were mated naturally according to the interests of the kennel and no litters that resulted from artificial insemination were included.

The results that these scientists obtained do in fact seem to map out that “recipe” that my Beagle breeder had hoped for some years ago. The first important component is the age of the dam. Based on a complex statistical predictive analysis these investigators found that the greatest single effect on the sex breakdown of litters was the mother’s age. Roughly speaking, for each increasing year of the dam’s age beyond the age of two, the percentage of males in the litter is expected to increase by 15 percent.

However, if we take into account the sire’s age, our ability to predict the sex composition of the litter becomes more precise. Specifically, they found a higher percentage of males when older dams are mated with young sires, and a higher percentage of males for young dams mated with old sires. Conversely, a higher percentage of females seems to result when young dams are mated with young sires, as well as when old dams are mated with old sires. In other words, if there is a large age gap between the sire and dam, you get litters full of males, while if the sire and dam are approximately equal in age you get litters containing more females.

Why this change in the proportion of male and female puppies occurs is unclear. However, it has been suggested that the chemical composition of vaginal fluids changes as a dog ages, as does the chemical composition of seminal fluid in which the sperm are delivered by the male. It is possible that the mixture of these two fluids, depending upon the age of the dogs that have been mated, can make the vaginal environment more hostile for either the sperm containing the X chromosome (which would produce a female puppy) or the sperm containing the Y chromosome (which would produce a male pup if it successfully fertilized an ovum).

These results seem to suggest that an awareness of some easily manipulated factors, such as the age of the sire and dam, should allow breeders increase the probability of getting puppies of a particular sex. However there is also a random factor that the investigators found, and that involved the size of the litter: They found that a higher percentage of males were predicted for young dams delivering big litters and old dams delivering small litters. Conversely a smaller percentage of males were predicted for young dams delivering small litters and old dams delivering big litters. Obviously litter size is not easily controlled, but ignoring that random factor, these data do suggest that by choosing appropriately aged dogs for mating breeders can increase the probability that puppies of a specific sex will appear in the litter.

I think that I will send a copy of this research report off to that Beagle breeder to see if she would like to try to use this “recipe” to cook up some more heavily female laden “breeders litters.” Although not too many, I hope, since over my lifetime with dogs (except for the dog of my college years) I have always owned male dogs, and I would hate to have them become rarer and more expensive.

Copyright SC Psychological Enterprises Ltd. May not be reprinted or reposted without permission

Anna Carolina Lopes Martins, Marília Andreia Vaz, Max Mendes Macedo, Renato Lima Santos, Conrado Aleksander Barbosa Galdino, Raphael RochaWenceslau & Guilherme Ribeiro Valle (2019). Maternal age, paternal age, and litter size interact to affect the offspring sex ratio of German Shepherd dogs. Theriogenology 135, 169-173,

RE: The Age of Parents Predicts the Sex of Puppies in a litter

Very interesting article. Thank you for sharing this information. I would like to know at what age are a breeding dam & sire considered old? Many thanks & kind regards, Melanie

  • Reply to Melanie Scott
  • Quote Melanie Scott

Old parents

Dogs are generally not bred after 8 years of age

  • Reply to Stanley Coren PhD., DSc, FRSC
  • Quote Stanley Coren PhD., DSc, FRSC

RE: The Age of Parents Predicts the Sex of Puppies in a litter

I have a litter on the ground right now of 6 puppies – Sire is 14 days older then the Dam and I have 5 boys and 1 girl. So I wonder if breed makes a difference.

  • Reply to Hezzy
  • Quote Hezzy

Further discussion

Great to see some people reading the paper. Thank you for cite the study and find a practical application for it. Although I have to highlight that we just found an association between variables and not a causal structure, nevertheless it can be a good beggining of an interesting discussion.

In the future, might more dog breeders take advantage of technology to predetermine the sex of puppies in a litter?

In mammals, the male determines the sex of an offspring, while the female determines the size of a litter by the number of eggs she drops that become fertilized. We have all heard that there are sires who have a reputation for producing females. However, is it possible that breeders can control the sex of their puppies, rather than the stud dogs?

We breeders have tried many methods in hopes of predetermining the sexes of our litters. Many methods have been based on old wives’ tales, cultural traditions, proper timing, and even scientific data based on childbirths.

Many swear that if you breed early, you will get bitches. I know breeder friends who have been successful using this method. To prove this even further, when progesterone testing is done, the “optimal fertile” time for breeding conceives mostly males, which may be yet another argument to “breed early to get bitches.”

Breeders who have used the acid/alkaline method to predetermine the sexes believe it’s the pH level in the bitch’s vagina that makes the optimal environment for survival of either sex and acidic environment will produce bitches while an alkaline environment will produce males.

One external method involves swabbing the bitch’s vagina with a diluted mixture of white vinegar to increase the acidic pH that will favor bitch puppies, or by swabbing it with a baking soda solution to increase alkaline pH level that will produce male puppies. Although successful in predetermination, it may decrease the size of the litter. Was this because the male sperm did not survive in an acidic environment, and vice versa, thus decreasing the litter size? Or would the bitch have produced the chosen-sex pup without any intervention, being just the luck of the draw, since the chances are 50-50 of either sex?

Seemingly, a more successful method based on the bitch’s pH level is feeding her an acidic or alkaline diet, depending on the desired sex chosen. This diet should be administered about two weeks before breeding for optimal results with multiple births of the desired sex.

Now there is technology available that can predetermine the sexes. Since the 1990s, gender selection has become more prevalent in the livestock industry and is accomplished by sorting semen according to gender before insemination. By using a flow cytometer, X or Y chromosomes can be distinguished in sperm cells. Then the semen is sorted according to the gender it would produce. Breeders of cattle, horses, sheep, and pigs have been using this technology successfully for years. Cattle breeders want to breed heifers to produce milk and cheese, while sheep breeders want males for better wool quality.

Dog breeders have many reasons to benefit from sex-semen technology, but is there enough demand? This technology, licensed to Sexing Technologies, has already been used for predicting gender for dogs in service work where one sex is preferred over another: Trainers of dogs for the blind primarily want bitches, while male dogs are preferred for police work. However, right now the technology is cost prohibitive for the hobby breeder. Perhaps in the near future, however, sexed-semen technology will be a common tool easily available to dog breeders, and more affordable. —Roseann Fucillo, Papillon Club of America

How to Determine the Sex of Puppies

Pick up the puppy gently. Newborn and young puppies are very delicate. Handle them with care. Puppies can’t see or hear very well before they’re a few weeks old, so picking them up and holding them may make them nervous or fussy.

Never pick up a puppy by its tail! Slide your hand under as much of the body as possible to offer the best support as you pick up the puppy.

Handle puppies as little as possible during their first two weeks after birth. Over-handling them could upset the mother dog or harm the puppies.

If possible, wait until the puppies are at least 4-6 weeks old before trying to determine their sex. They will have had enough time to bond with their mother and develop a bit by then.

Hold the puppy in cupped hands. Lay the puppy in your hands on its back, with its paws in the air. Make sure you support the puppy’s whole body with your hands so you don’t stress their spine. Don’t squeeze the puppy.

It may be easier if you have someone else hold the puppy so you can do the visual inspection.

You can also rest them on their backs on a warm towel spread on a table. This will help keep the puppy warm.

Work quickly. Newborn puppies cannot maintain their own body temperature for several weeks after they’re born. They can take a chill very easily. Don’t hold the puppy away from its mother longer than is necessary. 10 minutes should be the limit for handling young puppies.

Use a heating pad or hot water bottle wrapped in a towel in the puppy’s bed to help keep it warm.

Observe any distress. If the puppy shows signs of distress, such as squalling or squirming, put the puppy back with its mother immediately.

The mother may also become distressed if she isn’t used to you handling her pups. If you notice signs of her getting distressed, such as barking at you, put the puppy back with the mother.

You might be wondering if you can predict – or even control – the coat color of your puppies. The answer is YES.

Call us for a FREE confidential consultation at 800.929.0847. We’re here to help.

The number of DNA tests available to dog owners and breeders have expanded dramatically in recent years. What used to be just a handful of tests has grown, and includes several new inherited diseases and trait tests. These DNA tests have proven to be reliable and affordable in helping dog breeders make more informed decisions, and best manage the traits of their litters.

The overall objective for breeders therefore is to avoid propagating the undesirable traits while promoting good health and the desirable traits within the breeding program.

One such trait test option that has grown dramatically in recent years is Coat Color DNA Testing. Each breed has it’s own unique set of characteristics that set it apart from other breeds. These differences can be traced back hundreds of years (sometimes longer) based on rigorous selection for the animal to help its human counterpart perform a specific job. During that time specific colors began to present themselves that would later become part of the standard for each breed.

For a full list of DNA tests available, contact DDC Veterinary.

Perhaps understanding the color inheritance of the dog might be considered by some as a “novelty,” and less important than some of the disease tests available. However, in recent years the ability to predict color outcomes has become increasing popular among many breeders. Black is often the “dominant” color among many breeds however it’s those hidden “recessive” colors that breeders wish to identify in order to predict potential color outcomes in litters. For example, the Labrador retriever is a good model to begin understanding basic color inheritance.

There are normally 3 possible solid colors whereby black is dominant, the yellow and chocolate are hidden colors in the way that they are inherited. In order for yellow and/or chocolate to be produced, the black colored parents would therefore both need to possess the hidden genes for yellow and chocolate. DNA tests can quickly identify whether these hidden yellow (E Locus) and chocolate (B Locus) genes exist in a particular canine.

This was just one example of how DNA color testing can help a Labrador breeder. There are so many additional breeds that can benefit including the German Shepherd, Bulldog, Yorkshire Terrier, Rottweiler, Poodle, Boxer, etc. There are over 200 breeds that have color DNA options available! In addition, color testing options include 10 specific color tests, including Dilution, Agouti colors, S Locus for Piebald, Parti, Landseer or Random White Spotting just to name a few.

For more information, call DDC Veterinary, or you can order tests directly through the website.

I was talking to a breeder today and she said her female is notorious for throwing male pups. I always thought that the stud male is what determines the sex of the pups, like the male determines the sex of a human baby? Am I wrong?

8 Answers

How to Determine the Sex of Puppies

All I can say is WOW! To some of these answers.

There are two sex chromosomes. Offspring receives one from each parent. The one that they get from the mother will always be X because chromosome pair that makes a female a female is XX. Males have an XY pair. A sperm can either be X or Y. Depending on whether the egg gets fertilized with an X or Y chromosome detemermines gender.

In short, yes the male is the one who determines the sex of the offspring.

I would go back and ask that breeder, if she uses the same male? The stud determines the sex, a easy way to understand it for the average person is to look at it this way, X & Y are sperm, one is male one is female, and a egg can hold only one, what ever one gets to the egg will be X or Y, aka ( Male or Female ) So yes the male determines the sex, and the female will determine the size of the litter,

The male dog determines the puppies’ sex because the sex cells for female’s all have the last chromosome as an X.The male’s sex cells can either have an X or Y as the last chromosome.If the sex cell from a male has an X, and combines with the sex cell from the female, the puppy will be a girl. If the sex cell from a male has a Y, and combines with the sex cell from the female, the puppy will be a boy..

How to Determine the Sex of Puppies

First of all. for the others answering. she meant determines by the XYchromosomes. When a human woman get’s pregnant, the male chromosomes determine the gender of the baby, and the female determine the number of babies. She is not asking about genitaila.

In answer to your question. I do not know. but I would think the same would apply to animals as well. It’s a good question for a vet or reputable breeder.

If you love puppies and you know it, read this blog

How to Determine the Sex of Puppies

When I was a kid, I didn’t quite understand how you told a boy cat from a girl cat. My cat (Buttercup) was a girl, but I didn’t know why. I had no choice but to rely on the representations of my parents.

Inquisitive child that I was, I wanted to know more. What was the trick? I didn’t ask my parents. I prided myself on being a smart kid, and I loved puzzles. The clues were all there – I just had to solve the mystery. After all, I’d seen both of my parents flip a kitten upside down, take a look, and proudly declare whether it was a boy or a girl. I just knew that I could figure it out if I put my mind to it.

However, my answer to this question turned out to be wrong (and to be honest, slightly ridiculous). Here’s a hint:

How to Determine the Sex of Puppies

I’ll spare you a photo of where else I thought this mark might be…

Yes, after careful consideration, I determined that it must be something simple. Namely, that all kittens and puppies had something written on the bottom of them that told the answer. I suspected that it might be as simple as an F or M (or even B and G for boy and girl).

I couldn’t confirm my hypothesis, as none of our animals were particularly willing to let me to flip them over and do a thorough examination of their undercarriage to find the location of the mark. (I was pretty sure it wasn’t on the paws, as I’d gotten a good look at those.) Nonetheless, I felt certain that I’d cracked the case.

Confident in my problem-solving abilities, I promptly moved on to the next case, secure in the knowledge that I’d figured out the secret to my parents’ expertise.

(I told this story to some of my relatives this past weekend. My aunt then told me a story about a cat that she adopted and named Miss Maizie. When she went to the vet, he took one look and informed her that she might want to rename the cat Mr. Amazing instead. I guess it runs in the family.)

What crazy things did you believe as a kid? Did you ever have a cat or dog that you mistakenly thought was a boy or a girl?

Asked by Wiki User

Wiki User
July 24, 2012 10:47PM
2012-07-24 22:47:49

The easiest way is to gently lift the tail and count the openings. A male will have one opening (the anus) and a female will have two openings (the anus and the vulva).

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This information is not meant to be a substitute for veterinary care. Always follow the instructions provided by your veterinarian.

You just brought home a kitten that you intend to name Sam but your roommate tells you that you had better consider the name Samantha instead.

Determining the sex (gender) of a kitten is easy when you know what to look for.

Lift the kitten’s tail. The opening just under the tail is the anus. Below the anus is the genital opening which is round in males and is a vertical slit in females. In kittens of similar size, the distance between the anus and the genital opening is greater in the male than the female.

As the male kitten grows the testicles become more apparent.

The color of the kitten may suggest its gender. Almost all (but not ALL) kittens of calico (black, white and orange) or tortishell (black and orange) color are females. More orange kittens are male than female although the association between color and sex is not as strong as in the calico/tortishell colored kitten.

Washington State University assumes no liability for injury to you or your pet incurred by following these descriptions or procedures.

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How Can I Tell How Old a Black Lab Puppy Is?

How to Determine the Sex of Puppies

You’ve just acquired an adorable new furbaby and are bursting to know how old she is. Hopefully, you got her from responsible pet parents and she isn’t too young to leave her mom, but if you found her through some other means she might be very young.

Step 1

Check your puppy’s eyes to see if they are fully open and focused. Puppies open their eyes between 7 and 14 days old and within a few days they start looking around. If your new baby’s eyes are not fully open and clear, she may be very young and require special care and feeding.

Step 2

Open her mouth and examine her teeth, if she has any. If you see a few teeth starting to peek through, you can safely put her age at between 30 and 45 days. If you’re able to see a full set of 28 puppy teeth, she is 45 days or older. Puppies cut their adult teeth from around the third month, while their adult canine teeth only appear fully by 5 months old.

Step 3

Look at the length of your puppy’s legs and the way she moves. Very young puppies stagger and stumble on their feet, but by the age of 8 weeks they are able to scamper around confidently. When she reaches 4 months old her legs are longer and she starts to run properly.

Step 4

Research the breed standard for your puppy on the American Kennel Club’s website to find out what the average height is for her breed and gender. Puppies reach around 60 percent of their full height at 4 months old, and 75 percent by 6 months.

Step 5

Weigh your puppy by standing on a bathroom scale holding her, then weigh yourself without the puppy in your arms. Deduct your own weight from the combined total to get her exact weight. Alternatively, take her to the veterinarian and weigh her on the special dog scale most vets have in their practices.

Step 6

Compare her weight to her predicted adult weight according to the breed standard. If your puppy is one of the small- or medium-sized dog breeds, she will reach 75 percent of her adult weight by 4 months old. Large and giant breeds, however, mature more slowly and only reach 30 percent of their adult weight by this age.

Step 7

Evaluate your puppy’s muscle development, based on the description of her breed’s build. Small- and medium-sized breeds develop their muscles fully by the time they are 12 months old, but large and giant breeds only reach their full size by 18 months old.

There are a number of reasons which may have made you want to purchase a puppy. You may want one to keep you company. On the other hand, you may want to gift a friend or relative a puppy on their special day. In this case, you will not want to go wrong when it comes to the puppy you end up purchasing. For this not to happen, you will have to know the right company to deal with. Here are a number of guidelines that will aid you in knowing the right company to settle for.

There are various aspects that you will need to look into before you determine the right company to purchase the puppy from. For instance, you will have to determine your budget. This will play a great role in knowing the breed to end up settling for. The urgency of the puppy purchase should also be determined. You may want to surprise your kid on their birthday, which may be very close. The gender of the puppy should also be determined. You also need to know if you want a very young puppy or one that is a little bit matured. Once you have all this figured out, it will be easy for you to know the right company to deal with. Do look up White lab puppies for sale options.

Every puppy selling company has information about their services and puppies on sale posted on their web page. That is why you will be required to check it out. In the process, you will find out the various breeds the company deals with. You will get to know how old the puppies for sale are. As a result, you will come across the price tag of various puppies for sale, the delivery terms and conditions, and much more. this will give you an easy time getting to make the right choice.

It is also important that you get to seek advice from your friend. You may have an ally who purchased a very cute puppy. In the process, you will get to find from them the company they ended up dealing with. As a result, they will also tell you about the companies to avoid and the reasons as to why. You will also get to know the amount they paid for the puppy, the duration it took for the puppy to be delivered, and much more. With all this information, you will now not have to worry about making the wrong choice. You’ll want to know of the best services for White lab puppies for sale.

It will be a great joy the moment you get a companion in your house. You will want to purchase the right puppy for you. This will ensure that you do not get bored. Also, you will get to play with it from time to time. For you to end up purchasing a good puppy, you will need to deal with a competent company. You will not have a hard time figuring all this out if you focus on what has been elaborated in this article.

Asked by Wiki User

Wiki User
December 17, 2012 10:52PM
2012-12-17 22:52:38

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11 Answers

Its fairly straightforward. Hold the puppy in your hand and examine its underside. As long as you have an understanding of basic genital anatomy you should be able to tell

How to Determine the Sex of Puppies

The same way you would determine the sex of an adult dog.

Female plumbing is in the back near the rectum.

Male plumbing is on the belly, just below the belly button.

How to Determine the Sex of Puppies

For a male, the penis is toward the middle of their belly, right under where their belly button is and for a female, her vagina is between her legs, close to her rectum!

How to Determine the Sex of Puppies

It can be a bit difficult, but either they have a penis, or they don’t. Their genitals are very small and it can be hard to tell, but much easier to sex puppies, than kittens!

How to Determine the Sex of Puppies

If you have a vet and the mama will let you, take them in to get checked to make sure they are healthy and then the vet can tell you. It can be difficult to sex a puppy or kitten. talk to a professional. or even just call your vet’s office and ask to speak to a vet tech and they might be able to help you.

How to Determine the Sex of Puppies

Kidding right? ok if it is and outty and on the belly area and they pee from it it is a boy. If it is by the butt and not an outty and they pee from it is a girl, now also under the tail is the butt and they do poo from there. They will pee and poo on you so becareful. Good luck

Hope you know what is the head and what is the tail.

How to Determine the Sex of Puppies

Take it somewhere unfamiliar and see if it stops to ask directions.. if it does it’s female, if not, male :>)

How to Determine the Sex of Puppies

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  • B.A., Biology, Emory University
  • A.S., Nursing, Chattahoochee Technical College

Chromosomes are long segments of genes that carry hereditary information. They are composed of DNA and proteins and are located within the nucleus of our cells. Chromosomes determine everything from hair color and eye color to sex. Whether you are a male or female depends on the presence or absence of certain chromosomes. Human cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes for a total of 46. There are 22 pairs of autosomes (non-sex chromosomes) and one pair of sex chromosomes. The sex chromosomes are the X chromosome and the Y chromosome.

Sex Chromosomes

In human sexual reproduction, two distinct gametes fuse to form a zygote. Gametes are reproductive cells produced by a type of cell division called meiosis. Gametes are also called sex cells. They contain only one set of chromosomes and are thus said to be haploid.
The male gamete, called the spermatozoan, is relatively motile and usually has a flagellum. The female gamete, called the ovum, is nonmotile and relatively large in comparison to the male gamete. When the haploid male and female gametes unite in a process called fertilization, they develop into what is called a zygote. The zygote is diploid, meaning that it contains two sets of chromosomes.

Sex Chromosomes X-Y

The male gametes, or sperm cells, in humans and other mammals are heterogametic and contain one of two types of sex chromosomes. Sperm cells carry either an X or Y sex chromosome. Female gametes, or eggs, however, contain only the X sex chromosome and are homogametic. The sperm cell determines the sex of an individual in this case. If a sperm cell containing an X chromosome fertilizes an egg, the resulting zygote will be XX, or female. If the sperm cell contains a Y chromosome, then the resulting zygote will be XY, or male. Y chromosomes carry the necessary genes for the development of male gonads, or testes. Individuals that lack a Y chromosome (XO or XX) develop female gonads, or ovaries. Two X chromosomes are needed for the development of fully functioning ovaries.

Genes located on the X chromosome are called X-linked genes, and these genes determine X sex-linked traits. A mutation occurring in one of these genes could lead to the development of an altered trait. Because males have only one X chromosome, the altered trait would always be expressed in males. In females, however, the trait may not always be expressed. Because females have two X chromosomes, the altered trait could be masked if only one X chromosome has the mutation and the trait is recessive. An example of an X-linked gene is red-green colorblindness in humans.

Sex Chromosomes X-O

Grasshoppers, roaches, and other insects have a similar system for determining the sex of an individual. Adult males lack the Y sex chromosome that humans have and have only an X chromosome. They produce sperm cells that contain either an X chromosome or no sex chromosome, which is designated as O. The females are XX and produce egg cells that contain an X chromosome. If an X sperm cell fertilizes an egg, the resulting zygote will be XX, or female. If a sperm cell containing no sex chromosome fertilizes an egg, the resulting zygote will be XO, or male.

Sex Chromosomes Z-W

Birds, some insects such as butterflies, frogs, snakes, and some species of fish have a different system for determining sex. In these animals, it is the female gamete that determines the sex of an individual. Female gametes can either contain a Z chromosome or a W chromosome. Male gametes contain only the Z chromosome. Females of these species are ZW, and males are ZZ.


What about animals like most kinds of wasps, bees, and ants that have no sex chromosomes? In these species, fertilization determines sex. If an egg becomes fertilized, it will develop into a female. A non-fertilized egg may develop into a male. The female is diploid and contains two sets of chromosomes, while the male is haploid. This development of an unfertilized egg into a male and a fertilized egg into a female is a type of parthenogenesis known as arrhenotokous parthenogenesis.

Environmental Sex Determination

In turtles and crocodiles, sex is determined by the temperature of the surrounding environment at a specific period in the development of a fertilized egg. Eggs that are incubated above a certain temperature develop into one sex, while eggs incubated below a certain temperature develop into the other sex. Both males and females develop when eggs are incubated at temperatures ranging between those that induce only single-sex development.

Several options are available for choosing the sex of your child, but none are guaranteed.

Besides slipping the stork some extra cash, would-be parents have a number of options for choosing the sex of their child. The methods range from the natural (such as using particular positions during intercourse) to the high-tech (such as sorting sperm).

Couples have a 50/50 chance of conceiving a boy or a girl through plain old-fashioned intercourse. Yet there are some people who might want to stack the odds in their favor, either for cultural reasons, for dreams of raising a son or a daughter, or to balance out their families. Others do it to prevent their offspring from inheriting sex-linked genetic diseases.

Whatever the reason, health experts worry that some parents will place unrealistic hopes on a sex-determination technique and become disappointed whether or not they succeed. The method could either fail to produce a baby of the desired sex, or the right-gendered kid could grow up with traits that contradict with parental expectations. In this case, ethicists worry about the welfare of the child.

In addition, no preconception approach is foolproof, according to an ethics committee report in the May 2001 issue of Fertility and Sterility. Some popular strategies reportedly even fall under the category of foolery.

Of course, this list may not necessarily include your great grandmother’s “tried and true” formula for choosing the baby’s sex. Some doctors just chuckle at such schemes and say that as long as the advice doesn’t hurt mom or baby, then there may be no harm in trying.

Natural Methods for Choosing the Sex of Your Child

The Shettles method is arguably the most well-known natural strategy for choosing the sex of your child. Developed three decades ago by Landrum B. Shettles, MD, PhD, the plan involves timing intercourse to a woman’s cycle and assuming certain sexual positions.

In his book How to Choose the Sex of Your Baby, Shettles explains that the male (Y) sperm is smaller, faster, and more short-lived than the female (X) sperm. Because of this, it is better for boy-desiring couples to have sex closest to the time when a woman’s egg is released (ovulation). This way, the speedy male sperm could get to the egg sooner than the female one.


The Y chromosome apparently also enjoys an advantage over its counterpart when the sperm is discharged as close as possible to the opening of the cervix. This is achieved through rear entry intercourse (man enters woman from behind).

Parents desiring a girl, on the other hand, are encouraged to have sex in the missionary position (face to face, man on top) about two to four days before ovulation so that by the time the egg comes, only the heartier, more resilient X sperm will remain in the woman’s reproductive tract.

The Shettles method has reportedly been effective at least 75% of the time, with the rate slightly lower for girls than for boys. Pat Buie, a registered nurse from Canada, incorporated Shettles’ method into her sex selection plan — described in her book Choose the Sex of Your Baby Naturally — and claims to have a 95% success rate.

Many fertility experts question the value of natural sex selection strategies such as the Shettles method.

“There’s no real evidence to show that they work,” says Sandra Ann Carson, MD, president of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, noting that such techniques are as effective as random sex in producing a baby of the preferred sex.

J. Martin Young, MD, a pediatrician in private practice in Amarillo, Texas, reviewed medical literature on sex determination and found that the Shettles method fared worse than random sex, with a 39% success rate in choosing the sex of your child.

Shettles’ ideas seem to make sense, but they’re a little too simplistic and not based on scientific research, says Young, who authored two books on the subject. In How to Have a Boy and How to Have a Girl, he describes a strategy that opposes Shettles’.

“If you would like to have a female, you would schedule intercourse to be as close to the time of ovulation as possible,” says Young. “If you would like to have a male child, you would have intercourse a number of days before to try to increase the probability.”

The success rate for this strategy of choosing the sex of your child, says Young, can be as high as two chances in three (about 67%), if done properly.


The High-Tech Road

The odds of choosing the sex of your child may be even better with the help of technology. According to the fertility experts contacted by WebMD, MicroSort — a method that involves separating the male sperm from the female — is the current gold standard.

“The only effective method that I feel would be useful for sex selection is the MicroSort technique,” says William Gibbons, MD, director of the EVMS Jones Institute for Reproductive Medicine.

Carson agrees. “I think sperm sorting is probably the most viable method that we have right now, but it’s probably most effective when it’s used in combination with in vitro fertilization.”

MicroSort, which is licensed by the Genetics and IVF Institute in Fairfax, Va., is undergoing an FDA clinical trial. The technique involves separating X- and Y-bearing sperm by using laser light, dye, and a machine called a flow cytometer. Once the sperm are divided, the specimens are inserted back into the woman through artificial means, such as in vitro fertilization.

A news release issued in October 2002 from the Genetics and IVF Institute reports that MicroSort has a 91% success rate among couples wanting girls, and a 73% rate for those wanting boys.

MicroSort, however, isn’t the only high-tech method for choosing the sex of your child. Other more controversial strategies include preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), and chorionic villus sampling (CVS) — both of which are used to detect medical illnesses but can also be used to distinguish sex.

To determine sex, PGD involves examining an embryo taken from the uterus and replacing only the embryo of the desired sex. In CVS, chromosomes of the fetus are analyzed in early pregnancy. There are reports that some people who find out they have an unwanted gender through this technique end up asking for an abortion.

The American Society for Reproductive Medicine recommends neither PGD nor CVS as a sex selection method for couples looking to balance the gender ratio in their families.

How to Determine the Sex of Puppies

Welcoming the patter of tiny paws into your home is an exciting time, but do you wonder how big the owner of those paws will become? (jump to Calculator)

From living in a big enough house to choosing the correct crate, having an idea of whether that cute puppy is going to grow gigantic or not, is crucial to planning. Of course, you may have a purebred puppy and have a rough idea what to expect, but even then Mother Nature sometimes throws up a surprise or two.

To answer the question of how big your pup will get, here is an overview of how long puppies grow for, how breed affects size, and to predict the pup’s adult weight from his current one.

If your Great Dane pup is growing faster than Japanese knotweed, you may be hoping that he’ll soon stop growing.

However, the larger the dog breed, the more months they grow for…makes sense really. So first think about whether your pup is a toy, small, medium, large, or giant breed. Those at the pocket-sized end of the scale usually reach adult size as early as six months of age, whilst an out-sized giant dog carries on growing for 18 – 24 months.

Other factors that influence the adult’s size include:

  • Gender: Male dogs tend to be bigger than females
  • Age at desexing: Early neutering cancels out chemicals that tell bones to stop growing. Thus, early neuters have a tendency for long bones and are therefore taller
  • Breed: There’s no such thing as a miniature St Bernard or a giant Chihuahua. Know that certain breeds tend to grow to a certain size, and don’t be surprised when a Leonberger turns out to be large.

There is less guesswork when you have a purebred pup because you have the parents as a guide. Hopefully, you saw the mother dog, and so have an idea of her size. But what if you rescued a pup and never saw his parents?

A lot of pet parents put store by the size of the pup’s paws. The youngster with large feet is said to have a lot of growing to do! To a certain extent this is true but don’t set too much store on it. The most likely explanation is the paws have had a growth spurt ahead of the rest of the body, which will soon catch up. Thus, those large paws on a pup (if they don’t grow anymore) may actually become small paws on an adult.

Here are a couple of rule-of-thumb guides to predict your pup’s adult weight.

Firstly, if your dog had puppies, an average newborn doubles their birthweight by one week of age. After that, their weight gain is a cumulative 5 – 10 % increase day on day.

But by six weeks of age, small and big dogs gain weight very differently. Small breeds tend to gain 5 oz. a week, with larger breeds gaining nearly six times this at around 2lb 5 oz. a week.

Toy and Small Breeds

The first insight into their ultimate adult weight again comes at six weeks of age. Simply take their six-week weight, double it, and then double it again. For example, a 1 lb. puppy at six weeks old will weigh around 4lb as an adult.

Medium and Large Breeds

You have to wait a bit longer for these guys because it’s their 14 week age you use as a predictor. Also, the math is a bit more complicated. To work it out you double the pup’s 14 week age and then add on half of the original 14-week weight.

For example, a 20lb puppy at 14 weeks is predicted to weigh 20 + 20 + 10, which adds up to 50lb

For these guys, another weight landmark is the six-month point. This is the age when the pup weighs approximately two-thirds of his expected adult weight. Although that said, giant dogs are only approaching half their adult weight at this age.

Maybe you adopted the pup late and don’t know their six-week weight. What’s to be done?

OK, try this alternative calculation to get an idea what to expect.

Whilst the formula remains the same for toy through to giant dogs, what’s different is their age when you measure their weight.

First of all the formula:

Take the pup’s weight in pounds (at a certain age) and divide it by his age in weeks, then multiply that number by 52 (the number of weeks in a year). This should predict your pup’s ideal adult weight.

  • Small breeds Weigh at 12 weeks old
  • Medium sized breeds Weigh at 16 weeks old
  • Large breed pups Weigh at 20 weeks old

OK, so let’s say a medium-sized dog weighs 8 lbs. at 16 weeks. How heavy will he be as an adult?

8 (lbs.) divided by 16 (weeks) equals 0.5

Multiply 0.5 by 52 (0.5 x 52) = 26 lbs. predicted adult weight.

Let’s try again with a small dog weighing 3 lbs. at 12 weeks old

3 divided by 12 = 0.25

0.25 x 52 = 13 lbs. predicted adult dog


For your convenience, we have included a calculator to help you out:

How to Determine a Dog’s Age

Dogs age more rapidly than humans, with an average lifespan of about 14 years, depending on the dog’s size, health and lifestyle. While many people calculate a dog’s age in human years by multiplying their actual age in years by seven, this isn’t correct because a dog ages more rapidly in his early years than his later ones. Most breeds age at the same pace for the first five years of life, but smaller ones age more slowly than larger ones after this age and can live almost twice as long in some cases.

Step 1

Dogs age more rapidly than humans, with an average lifespan of about 14 years, depending on the dog’s size, health and lifestyle. While many people calculate a dog’s age in human years by multiplying their actual age in years by seven, this isn’t correct because a dog ages more rapidly in his early years than his later ones. Most breeds age at the same pace for the first five years of life, but smaller ones age more slowly than larger ones after this age and can live almost twice as long in some cases.

Estimate your dog’s age if you don’t know exactly when your dog was born. A dog’s age usually can be determined by the state of his teeth. A puppy gets all of his baby teeth by 8 weeks of age and permanent ones by 7 months, according to WebMD. A dog 1 to 2 years old has little tartar buildup, and a dog up to 5 years old has some wear and yellowing of the teeth. Dogs over 5 years old may have serious tartar buildup and dental disease. Senior dogs, over 10, may also show signs of graying fur, cataracts and joint disease.

Step 2

Dogs age more rapidly than humans, with an average lifespan of about 14 years, depending on the dog’s size, health and lifestyle. While many people calculate a dog’s age in human years by multiplying their actual age in years by seven, this isn’t correct because a dog ages more rapidly in his early years than his later ones. Most breeds age at the same pace for the first five years of life, but smaller ones age more slowly than larger ones after this age and can live almost twice as long in some cases.

Determine if your dog’s size is considered small, medium or large. Small dogs weigh less than 20 pounds, medium dogs range between 21 and 50 pounds and large dogs are over 50 pounds in size. While most dogs age at the same rate until they reach 5 years old, after this age, larger breeds age more rapidly than smaller ones, affecting the calculation of the dog’s age in human years.

Step 3

Dogs age more rapidly than humans, with an average lifespan of about 14 years, depending on the dog’s size, health and lifestyle. While many people calculate a dog’s age in human years by multiplying their actual age in years by seven, this isn’t correct because a dog ages more rapidly in his early years than his later ones. Most breeds age at the same pace for the first five years of life, but smaller ones age more slowly than larger ones after this age and can live almost twice as long in some cases.

Calculate the approximate human age of your puppy by multiplying the age in months by 2 for puppies up to 5 months old. Puppies age very rapidly during their first year of life, especially during these first 5 months, a rate of growth which decreases as the dog approaches his first year of life.

Multiply the age in months by 1.5 for puppies from 6 months old to 8 months old to account for the decreased rate of aging.

Multiply the age in months by 1.25 for puppies from 9 months old to 1 year old. A 1-year-old dog’s age in human years is approximately 15 years old, and the dog ages 3/4 of a human year for each month after that until the dog reaches 2 years old, or approximately 24 years old in human years. This figure is the same for all sizes and breeds.

Step 4

Dogs age more rapidly than humans, with an average lifespan of about 14 years, depending on the dog’s size, health and lifestyle. While many people calculate a dog’s age in human years by multiplying their actual age in years by seven, this isn’t correct because a dog ages more rapidly in his early years than his later ones. Most breeds age at the same pace for the first five years of life, but smaller ones age more slowly than larger ones after this age and can live almost twice as long in some cases.

Subtract 2 from the dog’s age in years and multiply the remainder by 4 for dogs over 2 years old and under 5 years old. Add 24 to this number to determine the age in human years. This figure is the same for all sizes and breeds up to 5 years old.

For example, to determine the human age of a 4-year-old dog, you would subtract 2 from 4, which would leave you with 2 as the remainder. Multiply this number by 4, which would give you 8. Add 24 to 8 to get 32, which is a 4-year-old dog’s age in human years.

Step 5

Dogs age more rapidly than humans, with an average lifespan of about 14 years, depending on the dog’s size, health and lifestyle. While many people calculate a dog’s age in human years by multiplying their actual age in years by seven, this isn’t correct because a dog ages more rapidly in his early years than his later ones. Most breeds age at the same pace for the first five years of life, but smaller ones age more slowly than larger ones after this age and can live almost twice as long in some cases.

Subtract 5 from the dog’s age in years for dogs over 5 years old. For small breeds of dogs, multiply the remainder by 4 and add it to 36. For medium-sized breeds, multiply the remainder by 5 and add it to 36.

For large breeds, multiply the remainder by 6 and add it to 36. Note that large breeds of dogs over 15 years old age about 27 human years between 15 and 16 years old in dog years due to their larger bone structure, which can lead to joint and other health issues.


Keep your dog indoors the majority of his life to lengthen his lifespan and prevent the health and behavioral conditions that can arise from a life outdoors.

Monitor your dog’s weight. Obesity can shorten your dog’s lifespan and should be avoided in all breeds. In large breeds especially, extra weight can put pressure on the dog’s joints.

Spay or neuter your dog to ensure that he lives a longer life. Dogs that have this surgery to remove their reproductive organs suffer from fewer hormone-related conditions associated with them, including cancer.

While all breeds tend to age at the same rate in human years up to the age of 5 years old, large dogs are considered seniors at this age. Because they age more slowly, medium-sized dogs are considered seniors at around age 7 and small breeds are considered seniors at around 10 years of age.

Some large breeds live longer than others, with the Great Dane having one of the shorter lifespans at an average of 8.5 years, and the Siberian husky living an average of 12 years, according to VetInfo.

How to Determine the Sex of Puppies

Sometimes during the course of a criminal investigation and its subsequent autopsy the pathologist may find his or herself faced with the task of identifying the sex of a skeleton after decomposition.

Obviously before decomposition there are detailed differences between the form of a male or a female but once decomposition has taken a hold and carried out the unpleasant tasks that nature has intended, all that remains is the skeletal form with teeth and possibly some hair to work with.

Steps in Determination of Sex

The determination of sex in skeletons is only possible once the male or female has reached adolescence or adulthood. Sexual dimorphism is slight in pre-adolescent children so this is a difficult task to perform if the skeleton is that of what might be a child.

A common way in which a pathologist and anthropologist might differentiate between male and female is quite simply bone size. This of course is not always accurate but for the most part male bones are larger in size to female bones and are so because of the addition muscle that may build up on the male body through adolescence and into adulthood.

The pelvis area is another good way of differentiating between the sexes. A female will have a larger sub-pubic angle to that of a man and this is obviously indicative of child bearing requirements in the female that are not required in the male of the species. This difference is noticeable across all species in nature where birth is from the womb. The male’s sub-pubic area is less than ninety degrees whilst the female’s is more.

The area around the pelvic inlet (in the middle of the pelvic bone) is larger in females than in men again with relevance to child bearing. The skeleton of a female who has given birth will be identifiable by the fact that this space will have widened upon the birth of a child and although it will contract it will not contract fully back to its original size.

My dog had 3 puppies 2 days ago. I havenever had to try to tell the sex that earlier,having got all my animals when they were 10 weeks old. How do you tell the difference between the boys and girls and do you have a picture I can compare it to.

14 Answers

How to Determine the Sex of Puppies

With girls, their “plumbing” is in between their back legs just below their tails. With boys, their “plumbing” is more toward the middle of their belly, kind of close to where their umbilical cord is.

It has picture of both sexes. Good Luck!

How to Determine the Sex of Puppies

Puppy Gender Identification

Dog training are excellent and very helpful to build you a stronger relationship with your dog. Read more

After I started training my dog, he became very attached to me and loves to stay by side as long as he can. But just going to them won’t help. You have to practice what they teach you outside of the class and you need to keep up with it at least every now and then after the class ends otherwise they’ll just go back to previous habits. This course is a really good place to go for dog obedience classes. It get’s your dog around other people and dogs to socialize while getting the training you need. As for electric collars, I would say to not get one. In my experience, they’re only a negative effect on your dog. I mean of course you’re going to need to correct your dog, but being positive and encouraging your dog works a lot faster and easier.

Every dog is different, so unless you have a german shepherd or a really smart dog, it might take a while to train her. You might get frustrated with her, but go easy. She’s still a puppy and has a lot of energy. A backyard or somewhere to run will help her get rid of a lot of energy that might cause her to misbehave from boredom.

How to Determine the Sex of Puppies

the adage about lifting the tail to check for gender holds true. Male will have a few extra parts albeit tiny. Feeling will also tell you. Female will be somewhat smooth in the private areas male will have some texture.

For the best answers, search on this site

Its fairly straightforward. Hold the puppy in your hand and examine its underside. As long as you have an understanding of basic genital anatomy you should be able to tell

A female may actually look more like a male, as their “organs”, are usually further out from the body. A male will have a small penis pointing out, but their testicles usually don’t come out right away.

How to Determine the Sex of Puppies

A male puppy has a penis that is just a little bump, right behind his belly button. A female’s vulva is right under her tail.

A natural way for dogs to communicate is to bark at things they find or see, usually which are interesting or a threat to them. If you have a dog that barks too much, then you want to find a way to calm down the instinct by offering the best dog training. While you want to make sure your dog can express themselves sometimes by barking, you also want to focus on not letting the noise become a burden. Following are some of the dog training tips that help your dog to stop barking while establishing basic obedience rules for the home.

Start young. If you have an older dog that hasn’t been trained to stop barking, it is difficult to stop. You want to make sure that you train puppies not to bark if they are doing it too much. The younger you start training them, the easier it will be for them to understand the dog training commands.

Understand what barking is for. Barks from a dog are used for several reasons. You want to make sure you understand why they bark and whether this can be prevented. Some common reasons for barking are from the dog being bored or lonely. If there are distractions that the dog feels are a threat, they may also bark. You can prevent dogs from barking by giving them extra attention or by getting another pet.

Reward them when they stop. Just like other types of obedience training, you can easily stop your dog from barking by showing them when to be quiet. This is known as one of the best dog training methods. Dog training commands and words such as saying quiet, with a voice that has a low tone, will easily stop your dog from barking. Once they do stop, you can reward them by telling them good in a higher tone and by giving them a treat. However, you need to do this instantly after they stop so they understand what the reward is for.

Anti bark collars. If your dog instinctively keeps barking at everything, then you can get a collar for extra training. When the dog barks, a stimulus or scent is set off which causes slight discomfort for the dog. If you aren’t around and your dog starts barking, it will immediately stop them.

Know when to train. You want to make sure you don’t leave your dog in a position where they can’t express themselves. Even if you have neighbors who don’t like the dog barking, there are certain times where they should be able to speak. Knowing when to apply commands and training and when to let them bark helps them to feel comfortable while allowing you to apply limitations.

The ability to offer the best dog training is one that is reliant on consistency and understanding your dog. If you have a pet that naturally wants to bark, then finding a way to monitor the behavior is the best step to take. Following these dog training tips can help you to establish better behavior with your dog while allowing them to express themselves at the right time.

Before You Spend MORE Money On Expensive Dog Trainers or Products,

Watch This Video First!

Discover the powerful dog training secrets to eliminate over 30+ common behavioral dog and puppy issues with step-by-step instructions from one of the world’s most skilled dog trainers!

If the nub is on an angle away from the body then it’s more likely a boy, but if it’s horizontal then it’s a girl

  • Andrea Downey
  • 8 Oct 2018, 11:01
  • Updated : 8 Oct 2018, 15:23

FINDING out the sex of your baby is one of the most exciting moments during pregnancy.

For many, waiting until the 20-week scan feels like a lifetime. but there’s a simple test you could do at your 12-week scan to predict if you’re having a boy or a girl.

How to Determine the Sex of Puppies

The nub theory, also known as the angle of the dangle, looks at how your baby’s spinal cord and genital tissues are forming at your first pregnancy scan.

While it’s not recommended by midwives – the NHS recommends you wait until your second ultrasound between 18 and 21 weeks – many parents say they’ve used the nub test to make an educated guess earlier.

Becky Rutherford, a midwife sonographer, wrote for Baby Centre: “The sex of your baby is fixed at conception. All embryos have a small bud or swelling (genital nub).

“If you’re having a boy, testosterone starts being produced at seven weeks.

How to Determine the Sex of Puppies

“Testosterone prompts the bud to grow and develop into a penis and scrotum. In a girl, the genital nub will become the clitoris and labia.

“Nub theory is based on the idea that it’s possible to tell which type of genital nub your baby has from the dating scan image. But nub development is a gradual process, and it’s a real challenge to see which way the nub is developing around the time of your dating scan.”

The angle of the nub can supposedly tell you the sex of your baby.

If the nub is on an angle away from the body then it’s more likely a boy – and the nub will develop into a penis and scrotum.

How to Determine the Sex of Puppies

But if the nub is more horizontal with the spinal cord then it’s more likely to be a girl, Becky explained.

It might seem like a fool-proof way to tell the sex of your little one, but midwives and other doctors recommend you wait until your second ultrasound, typically at 20 weeks, to be certain.

That’s because it’s incredibly difficult to determine the sex of your baby in the first trimester as the genitals haven’t formed properly yet.

The main reason your second scan is done between 18 and 21 weeks is to check for physical abnormalities in your baby, but you can also ask the sonographer to check if it’s a boy or girl.

Don’t forget that it’s not an exact science – the sonographer won’t be able to 100 per cent know the sex of your bundle of joy.

By Michele Welton, Dog Trainer, Breed Selection Consultant, Author of 15 Dog Books

How to Determine the Sex of Puppies

Don’t just grab the “cutest” puppy or the boldest one. Use my sensible guidelines for choosing a puppy to be a good family pet.

Here’s my first tip for choosing the puppy who is best suited to you: Don’t let the PUPPY choose YOU.

You may have been advised by well-meaning friends to “Pick the puppy who runs right up to you!”

But this simply results in all the bold and pushy puppies being chosen first. The gentler puppies who wait politely in the background get ignored.

Most families are making a mistake when they choose bold, vigorous, energetic puppies who jump all over you, grab all the toys, start all the wrestling matches, grab hold of your pants leg and tug fiercely with adorable puppy growls.

Sure, these little dynamos are a blast to play with – for an hour at the breeder’s house. But they can drive you crazy within a day or two in your own home. And they can be more difficult to train.

A puppy can be perfectly suited to you without immediately launching himself into your lap. Before you choose, resolve to give each puppy a fair shake.

First, evaluate the litter as a group

Your first look should be at the litter as a group. If there are four puppies and three of them are staying at arm’s length or woofing suspiciously at you, this is probably a very risky litter.

And what about the fourth puppy, the one who acts normal? I would be still be wary. He could have inherited the same shy or distrustful genes and it simply hasn’t caught up to him yet.

A puppy who tucks his tail or shrinks away from you is not a safe choice as a pet. This is especially true if you have children. If the shyness is hardwired into his genes, a shy puppy will grow into a shy adult who can be difficult to live with and who may even snap defensively if startled or frightened.

So if the litter isn’t running away, what should they be doing?

Normal puppies are friendly, curious, and trusting. They mill around your feet, tug at your shoelaces, crawl into your lap, nibble on your fingers, and just generally toddle around checking everything out.

How to Determine the Sex of Puppies

Observe how each puppy plays with the other puppies.

You can tell something about the individual puppies by the way they interact with their littermates.

  • Which ones are strong, outgoing, bossy, noisy?
  • Which ones are quiet, submissive, gentle?
  • Which ones grab all the toys and win the tugs-of-war?
  • Which ones seem delicate or picked on?

Most families do best with a pup who is neither boss of the litter nor lowest on the totem pole.

Next, evaluate the puppies individually

After viewing the pups as a group, ask the breeder if you can see each puppy who is available for sale, individually.

This is an important step in evaluating puppies. You want to see how each puppy reacts when he is away from his littermates. After all, that’s how it’s going to be at your house.

  • Sometimes a puppy who seems bold when his friends are “backing him up” will become less certain on his own.
  • Sometimes a puppy who feels dominated by the others will become more outgoing on his own.
  • Sometimes an energetic puppy will calm down when not being egged on by the others.

So now it’s time for your Individual Puppy Tests. and it’s time to introduce my book, Dog Quest: Find The Dog Of Your Dreams, which will guide you through each test.

  • 11 Puppy Temperament Tests. These easy-to-do tests take only a few minutes and give you valuable insights into whether a puppy will make a good pet.
  • 11 Puppy Health Checks. You can do all of these simple health checks in less than 2 minutes – I’ll tell you exactly what to look for.
  • Parent Evaluation. Explains how to evaluate the temperament of your puppy’s parents, especially the mother, who can have a great effect on how your puppy turns out.
  • Older Puppy Evaluation. How to evaluate older puppies and adolescent dogs, including how to test for possessiveness and aggression in a seemingly friendly dog

Plus, Dog Quest: Find The Dog Of Your Dreams.

  • Helps you sort out what kind of dog to get – purebred, crossbred, or mixed breed
  • Compares male and female dogs
  • Compares young puppies, older puppies, adolescent dogs, adult dogs
  • Compares animal shelters, rescue groups, performance breeders, show breeders, pet breeders, pet shops, and owners giving their dogs away
  • Tells you the exact questions you should ask, what answers you should expect, and which answers are “red flags” that mean you should stay away
  • Shows you how to evaluate the temperament of puppies and adult dogs to see whether they will make a good pet

About the author: Michele Welton has over 40 years of experience as a Dog Trainer, Dog Breed Consultant, and founder of three Dog Training Centers. An expert researcher and author of 15 books about dogs, she loves helping people choose, train, and care for their dogs.

How to Determine the Sex of Puppies

How to Determine the Sex of Puppies

The million dollar question for many after finding out about a pregnancy: Am I having a boy or a girl?

Some people love the suspense of not knowing the sex of their baby until the delivery. But others can’t wait and find out much sooner.

Of course, only a doctor can reliably determine the sex of a baby. Yet, this doesn’t stop many from predicting the sex of their baby based on factors like how they carry the baby or what they’re craving to eat.

Here’s what you need to know about methods used to determine a baby’s sex, as well as how some people use old wives’ tales to guess the sex.

When it comes to finding out the sex of your baby, there isn’t one single test that is used for everyone. So if you want to know the sex ahead of time, your doctor can use different tests at different stages of your pregnancy.

But while all of these tests are reliable, they’re not all suitable for everyone. Some of them carry significant risks. For most of the tests listed, finding out the sex is a secondary benefit while the test looks for other information.

The following are possible ways to learn your baby’s sex, from the earliest options.

In vitro fertilization with sex selection

If you’re planning in vitro fertilization (IVF), there’s an option to choose the sex of your baby in conjunction with this procedure. IVF assists with fertility by combining a mature egg with sperm outside of the body. This creates an embryo, which is then implanted in the womb.

If you choose, you can have the sex of different embryos identified, and then only transfer the embryos of your desired sex.

This might be an option if it is important to you to have a child of a certain sex.

Sex selection in conjunction with IVF is about 99 percent accurate. But, of course, there’s the risk of multiple births with IVF — if you transfer more than one embryo to the uterus.

Non-invasive prenatal test

A non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) checks for chromosomal conditions like Down syndrome. You can have this test starting at 10 weeks of pregnancy. It doesn’t diagnose a chromosome disorder. It only screens for the possibility.

If your baby has abnormal results, your doctor may order further tests to diagnose Down syndrome and other chromosome disorders.

For this test, you’ll provide a blood sample, which is then sent to a lab and checked for the presence of fetal DNA linked to chromosome disorders. This test can also accurately determine the sex of your baby. If you don’t want to know, let your doctor know before testing begins.

You’ll need the NIPT if you’re at high risk of having a baby with a chromosome abnormality. This might be the case if you’ve previously given birth to a baby with an abnormality, or if you’ll be over the age of 35 at the time of delivery.

Because this is a noninvasive test, giving a blood sample doesn’t pose any risk to you or your baby.

Chorionic villus sampling

Chronic villus sampling (CVS) is one genetic test used to identify Down syndrome. This test removes a sample of chorionic villus, which is a type of tissue found in the placenta. It reveals genetic information about your baby.

You can have this test as early as your 10th or 12th week of pregnancy. And because it has gene information about your baby, it can also reveal the sex of your baby.

Your doctor may advise CVS if you’re over the age of 35 or if you have a family history of a chromosome abnormality. This is an accurate test for finding out the sex of the baby, but it does involve some risks.

Some women have cramping, bleeding, or leak amniotic fluid, and there’s also the risk of miscarriage and preterm labor.


Amniocentesis is a test that helps diagnose detect developmental issues in a fetus. Your doctor collects a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains cells that indicate abnormalities. The cells are tested for Down syndrome, spina bifida, and other genetic conditions.

Your healthcare provider may recommend an amniocentesis if an ultrasound detects an abnormality, if you’ll be older than 35 at the time of delivery, or if you have a family history of a chromosome disorder. You can have this test around 15 to 18 weeks of pregnancy, and it takes about 30 minutes.

First, your doctor uses an ultrasound to determine your baby’s location in the womb, and then inserts a fine needle through your abdomen to withdraw amniotic fluid. Risks include cramping, bruising, and spotting. There’s also a risk of miscarriage.

Along with detecting birth defects and other abnormalities with your baby, an amniocentesis also identifies the sex of your child. So if you don’t want to know, make this known before testing so your doctor doesn’t spill the beans.


An ultrasound is a routine prenatal test where you’ll lie on a table and have your stomach scanned. This test uses sound waves to create an image of your baby, and it’s often used to check your baby’s development and health.

Since an ultrasound creates an image of your baby, it can also reveal the sex of your baby. Most doctors schedule an ultrasound at around 18 to 21 weeks, but the sex may be determined by ultrasound as early as 14 weeks .

It’s not always 100 percent accurate, though. Your baby might be in an awkward position, which makes it difficult to clearly see the genitals. If the technician can’t find a penis, they’ll conclude that you’re having a girl and vice versa. But mistakes do happen.

Each puppy has a discernable personality that can be judged at 7 weeks of age. When you’re choosing a puppy from a litter pay attention to personality type:

Bully: On first glance, the bully may seem overtly social and interactive. You may think “Good, that one has spirit.” However, keep watching. Does she steal the toys from the other puppies, does she play too rough? Does she scale the enclosure or climb on the backs of her littermates as though they don’t exist?

These are sure signs of determination, smarts, and willpower, but you have to decide how those characteristics will mesh into your home life. If you have the time to channel (and challenge) this puppy, take her home! However, if you have other demands on your time and you’re hoping for a puppy to reduce your stress, pass on the bully.

Rebel: Puppies in this group are quick-thinking, fun-loving, and engaging. They hold an equal fascination with toys and play as their bullying brethren, but they’re clearly more sensitive. In fact, the bully and the rebel rouser may be seen playing together with the rebel rouser taking the submissive roll when the bully flexes her muscles (in “Doglish” this may be seen by a belly roll or head pinning).

Rebel rousers are engaging without being too headstrong. This is an ideal temperament for an active person or family with older children.

Independent Thinkers: These puppies tolerate and interact in playful encounters some of the time but are also happy sitting or playing with a toy on their own. Stoic and contained, these independent thinkers seem to have been born with an old soul.

These pups are ideal in a structured home where owners fully respect their sense of self and make a commitment to teach them. Because they’re mindful and alert, these puppies are ideally placed in calm homes, with older or no children.

Eager to Please: This lot is eager to please and is always interested in your opinion. This attitude can lead them to the head of the class or into the doghouse depending on how you play it. If you direct and reinforce good manners, you’ll have 100 percent cooperation. On the other hand, if you try to correct your puppy’s naughty behavior, she’ll see your interaction as a reason to replay it over and over and over.

Because of their trainability, these puppies are wonderful companions, but they can end up on the B list if they don’t receive direction.

Just Chillin’: This relaxed lot beautifully balances play, interaction, and sleep — doing all three on their own time. Perhaps less intelligent than their more active siblings, pups with this personality type simply do what they want, when they want.

These puppies may sound dreamy, but remember, motivating them takes some creativity. They’re not ideal for controlling owners, but they complement a relaxed household and fit beautifully into a home environment with young children, provided the breed is suitable.

Sweetie Pie: Soft-natured and gentle, these puppies are most often seen under the other puppies who are taking advantage of their docile nature. These pups are also passive and eager to please, so their sweetness will be palpable. Within their litter, these puppies stay close to their mother and use her protection as a shield.

This personality is for those owners who prefer doting attention over rigorous training. Puppies with this personality are less likely to roam because staying close to home is a top priority.

Timid: These puppies, who are clearly not born with a strong sense of self, may appear to have been abused, even though it’s more symbolic of their dislocated character than misguided nurturing. When approached, they often creep on their bellies or arch their back in total submission.

Your heart may go out to pups with this personality, but only select this type of puppy if you have the time and patience to devote to fostering their self-esteem.

Regardless of your effort, timid puppies may always be overwhelmed and in need of direction, so they aren’t a suitable choice for families with children.

How to Determine the Sex of Puppies

How to Determine the Sex of Puppies

Are you wanting to expand your family and have your heart set on having a little boy? While it may seem taboo to admit you have a preference for the sex of your unborn child, it’s OK to admit your dreams. We won’t share your secret with anyone!

If you haven’t yet conceived, you may have heard rumors about things you can try to influence the sex of your baby. Perhaps you just started searching for ideas to help you have a baby boy. What are some things you can try? Are some methods more effective than others?

We understand that “sex” and “gender” are terms that are evolving in our world, so before going any further, we’d like to clarify that when we talk about the sex of a baby in this article, we’re only talking about the baby’s chromosomes, the XY combination that is thought of as male.

Thus, the “sex” mentioned in this article is determined by the sperm contributing a Y and the egg contributing an X.

As to whether there’s a guaranteed way to influence your chances have a boy — no, there isn’t. Short of medically implanting an embryo that is known to be a boy, there are no guarantees when it comes to the sex of your baby.

In general there is approximately a 50/50 chance of having a boy or girl if things are left to nature. It all comes down to which sperm wins the race, and millions of them are racing.

That’s where the idea the influencing the sex of your future child comes in. Some argue that by using timing, position, diet, and other methods you can alter the odds in favor of the male sperm.

Interestingly, one 2008 study of 927 family trees indicates that whether you’ll have boys or girls may actually be determined by the father in more ways than one. Not only do chromosomes in the sperm dictate the sex of the baby, but some fathers may be predisposed to have more boys or girls.

According to this study, men may inherit a tendency to have more boys or girls from their parents, which may mean that some men produce more Y or X chromosome sperm. Thus, if a man has more brothers, he may also have more sons.

If you really want a boy, there are suggestions that some parents will tell you worked for them. None of these suggestions are scientifically proven to guarantee results, but people try them hoping to improve the odds in their favor.

For starters, you may want to consider what you’re eating as you try to conceive. While this concept has not been widely studied or substantiated (so take these suggestions with a grain of salt), researchers in a 2008 study of 740 women found an association between taking in more calories and conceiving a boy.

Now, this doesn’t mean you should wildly increase your portion sizes and nosh throughout the day as you try to conceive. Keep in mind that healthy eating habits now (whole foods, fruits and vegetables, low-sugar snacks) will help you continue to take in the appropriate number of calories when you’re pregnant.

The women studied also consumed higher levels of potassium. (Want to eat more potassium? Try bananas, sweet potatoes, and white beans.)

The study also noted that “Women producing male infants consumed more breakfast cereal than those with female infants.” So go ahead and pour yourself a bowl!

The Shettles method

Another suggestion to increase your chances of having a boy is a conception plan called the Shettles method, which was developed by Landrum B. Shettles around 1960.

Shettles studied sperm to determine what might impact the speed of the sperm. (After all, the sperm that wins the race and fertilizes the egg determines the gender.) He considered timing of intercourse, positions, and the pH of body fluids to see which may have an impact on gender.

Key points of the Shettles method include:

  • sex close to ovulation
  • sperm deposited close to the cervix using positions allowing for deep penetration
  • alkaline environment in the vagina
  • woman having an orgasm first

How effective is the Shettles method? Well, it depends who you talk to. Shettles claims an overall 75 percent success rate in the current edition of his book, and there are plenty of people who claim that they successfully conceived a boy or girl using his method.

On the other hand, some older research found that sex 2 to 3 days after ovulation may not lead to pregnancy at all. And another (also dated) study suggested that X and Y chromosomes do not have the meaningful shape differences Shettles believed existed.

Looking for more reliable ways to increase your odds? Depending on your circumstances and the availability of these options, there are medical interventions you can try.

However, these treatments can be expensive and mentally and physically taxing. They also come with risks, from surgical complications to miscarriage and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Therefore, they’re generally not suggested for sex selection without a medical need.

Assisted reproductive technology (ART) allows people to conceive a child through medicalized procedures. Some of these methods include: in vitro fertilization (IVF), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), and zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT).

Through a process called preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) or preimplantation genetic selection (PGS) it’s possible to use IVF to create embryos, test these embryos for their sex, and implant an embryo with the desired sex into the uterus.

This essentially guarantees that if all goes well with the pregnancy you’ll have the little boy (or girl) you’ve been dreaming of.

Considerations for sex selection

It’s important to note that while PGD/PGS is allowed in the United States, this process is illegal in many other countries like the United Kingdom and China unless there is severe medical grounds.

While it’s possible for people to travel to another country to have the procedures done (and many people do so), the high cost and extra complications involved may make it less appealing.

One reasons lawmakers have given for making PGD/PGS illegal is a fear that parents will choose to have a disproportionate amount of boys or girls. Having a population with too many male or female babies could result in problems with future population growth.

In countries that ban sex selection, one suggestion has been to limit PGD/PGS to medical issues and “family balancing.” This would require families to have a child of the other sex before they could decide on a future child’s sex.

Perhaps an even greater reason lawmakers have seen to limit PGD or make it illegal are the ethical concerns involved. This is a complex and emotionally-charged subject. It’s important to explore your own feelings and discuss your options with your doctor.