Opening folders in Ubuntu is one of the basic tasks you will perform daily as a regular Ubuntu user. While there are many ways to do it, each of us has our own preferences when it comes to accessing folders in our system.
In this article, we’ll explain several ways you can:
- Open a Folder In the File Manager (Nautilus)
- Search and Open a Folder through the Dash
- Access a folder In the command line (Terminal)
- Open a folder in the Terminal through the File Manager
- Open a folder in the File Manager through the command line
- Access a Folder as Administrator from the File Manager
The procedures in this tutorial are compatible with Ubuntu 22.04 and also Ubuntu 20.04.
Open a Folder In the File Manager (Nautilus)
The latest version of Ubuntu is Ubuntu 22.04, comes with a default file manager by the name of Nautilus. This open-source file manager created for our GNOME desktops gives us a way to manage our files and folders.
You can access the Nautilus File Manager in the following ways:
1. Searching for the term ‘Nautilus’ from the system Dash:
2. Searching for the term Files or File Manager from the system Dash:
3. Access the File Manager from the Files icon in the Ubuntu Dock/Activities panel.
The File Manager opens in your Home folder by default. In Ubuntu you can open your required folder by double-clicking it, or by choosing one of the options from the right-click menu:
- Open In New Tab
- Open In New Window
Search and Open a Folder through Dash
The Dash search lets you open a folder directly, rather than browsing it from the File Manager. Simply type the folder name in the Dash and the search results will display based on your criteria.
Through a simple click, you can open the relevant folder (see the path in case multiple search results shows).
Open a folder In the command line (Terminal)
The Ubuntu command line, the Terminal is also a non-UI-based approach to accessing your folders. You can open the Terminal application either through the system Dash or the Ctrl+Alt+T shortcut.
Here are some of the commands and symbols that will help you in browsing folders in the command line:
The cd or change directory command allows you to change your directory, or in other words, open a new folder. When you open the Terminal, you are in your home directory. The following command will help you in opening the folder of your choice:
In the above image, we have first listed the folders in the current directory through the ls command and then opened the Downloads folder through the cd command. The command prompt of the Terminal, by default, shows the current folder you are in.
The tilde (`) symbol
The tilde symbol represents our home directory. You can use this symbol in the cd command to move to a folder in your /home/[user]/ directory.
In the following image, I will open the snap folder from my home directory, and then directly open the Downloads folder from my home directory by using tilde:
The tilde symbol here has helped me in avoiding going back to the home folder first and then opening the Downloads folder.
The pwd command stands for print working directory. If you want to know the exact directory path you are currently in, simply use the following command to do so:
The ‘/’ symbol
The / symbol with the cd command helps you in directly opening the root folder.
The ‘..’ symbol
The ‘..’ symbol with the cd command helps you in navigating up one directory level:
The ‘-’ symbol
The ‘-’ symbol with the cd command helps you in going back to the previous folder you were in, before navigating to the current folder. You can think of this command as the ‘Previous Channel’ button on your tv remote control.
In the following example, I was in the /home/user/Downloads folder. Then I used the ‘..’ symbol to go back to my home folder. Now if I want to go back to the Downloads folder, I can use the following command to go back to the Downloads folder:
Open a folder in the Terminal through the File Manager
In order to open a folder from the File Manager to your Terminal application:
Right-click the selected folder and select Open in Terminal from the menu as follows:
Open a folder in the File Manager through the command line
If you are in the Ubuntu command line and want to open a specific folder in the UI File Manager, you can use one of the following two ways:
Access a Folder as Administrator from the File Manager
While working with files and folders as a Linux Administrator, we frequently need to access and edit files and folders that require root permissions. We usually perform this task through the Ubuntu Terminal(the command line utility) using the sudo function. Here is a workaround to do the same through the Nautilus Admin application.
Install Nautilus Admin
The following steps will help you in installing the Nautilus file manager to your Ubuntu system:
Open the Terminal through Ctrl+Alt+T or through the Ubuntu dash.
Run the following command as an administrator:
Enter Y when prompted about the use of additional disk space.
Nautilus Admin will be installed on your system. You can open it by entering Nautilus in your Ubuntu Dash as follows:
The file manager in your system is now Nautilus Admin.
Opening a Folder as an Administrator
Let us suppose that you need to open a folder that requires root permission. You can access the folder through the UI file manager; right-click and then select Open as Administrator from the menu.
In this example, we want to access the root folder from Other Locations. Since this folder requires root privileges, we will access it as follows:
You will be asked to provide authentication information, after which you will be able to access the contents of the folder.
By now, you must have mastered accessing your Ubuntu folders both through the command line and the UI. You are now even able to open sensitive folders as administrators in Ubuntu.
How do I access the etc folder in Ubuntu?
6 Ways to Open Folders in Ubuntu 18.04 LTS
- Open a Folder In the File Manager (Nautilus)
- Search and Open a Folder through the Dash.
- Access a folder In the command line (Terminal)
- Open a folder in the Terminal through the File Manager.
- Open a folder in the File Manager through the command line.
- Access a Folder as Administrator from the File Manager.
How do I open a folder in Terminal?
Go to the folder you want to open in a Terminal window, but don’t go into the folder. Select the folder, right-click on it, and then select Open in Terminal.
How do I open a file in Ubuntu terminal?
To open any file from the command line with the default application, just type open followed by the filename/path.
What is the etc folder in Linux?
The /etc directory contains configuration files, which can generally be edited by hand in a text editor. Note that the /etc/ directory contains system-wide configuration files – user-specific configuration files are located in each user’s home directory.
How do I open file manager in terminal?
From your terminal window, just type in the following command: nautilus . And the next thing you know, you’ll have a file browser window open at the current location.
How do I get to root in Linux?
1) Becoming a root User in Linux, using ‘su’ command
su is the simplest way of switching over to root account which requires root password to use the ‘su’ command in Linux. This ‘su’ access will allow us to retrieve the root user home directory and their shell.
Where is the etc folder?
The /etc directory is contained in the root directory. It stores storage system configuration files, executables required to boot the system, and some log files. Attention: Do not delete any directories from the /etc directory unless instructed to do so by technical support personnel.
How do you use etc in Linux?
The /etc hierarchy contains configuration files. A “configuration file” is a local file used to control the operation of a program; it must be static and cannot be an executable binary. It is recommended that files be stored in subdirectories of /etc rather than directly in /etc .
How do you create a new folder?
Create a folder
- On your Android phone or tablet, open the Google Drive app.
- At the bottom right, tap Add .
- Tap Folder.
- Name the folder.
- Tap Create.
How do I open a PDF file in Linux?
In this article, we shall look at 8 important PDF viewers/readers that can help you when dealing with PDF files in Linux systems.
- Okular. It is universal document viewer which is also a free software developed by KDE. …
- Evince. …
- Foxit Reader. …
- Firefox (PDF. …
- XPDF. …
- GNU GV. …
- Mupdf. …
How do I open a text file in Linux?
Type vi filename. txt into Terminal.
- For a file named “tamins”, for example, you’d type vi tamins. txt .
- If your current directory has a file by the same name, this command will instead open that file.
How do I open a VS code in terminal?
Launching VS Code from the terminal looks cool. To do this, press CMD + SHIFT + P, type shell command and select Install code command in path. Afterwards, navigate to any project from the terminal and type code . from the directory to launch the project using VS Code.
- The procedure discussed in this article has been tested on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS.
- The same procedure can be done in a Debian system.
- To launch Command Line Terminal, press Ctrl + Alt + T.
Install Hyper Terminal
Follow the steps below to install Hyper Terminal in Ubuntu:
Step 1: Download the Hyper Terminal
First, head over to Hyper’s official website and download the Hyper Terminal installer file.
To do so, open this link in your browser and download the package labeled Debian (.deb).
When the following dialog box appears, click OK to save this file.
The downloaded installer (.deb) for Hyper Terminal will be saved in the Downloads folder.
Alternatively, you can download the installer file with a single command in the Terminal command line. The command to download the .deb installer for Hyper Terminal is as follows:
The downloaded installer will be saved in the Home folder.
Step 2: Install Hyper Terminal
The next step is to install the Hyper Terminal application. Navigate to the folder containing the file (.deb) for the Hyper Terminal. Then run the command below to install it:
When prompted for the password, enter the sudo password.
Then the system will ask you to confirm whether you want to install the application or not. Press y to confirm, then the Hyper Terminal installation will begin.
Step 3: Launch Hyper Terminal
Once installed, you can open Hyper either from the command line or with the GUI.
To open the Hyper Terminal application via the command line, run the following command in Terminal:
To open the Hyper Terminal app via GUI, press the super key on your keyboard and type hyper. When the icon for Hyper Terminal appears as shown in the following screenshot, click on it to launch it.
After Hyper Terminal is launched, you will see the following window. You can see that it looks a lot like Ubuntu’s default Terminal app.
Similar to Ubuntu’s default Terminal application, you can run any command in Hyper Terminal.
The Hyper Terminal configuration file is hyper.js located in the Home directory. You can edit this file and configure various properties including font, line height, letter spacing, background color and many more.
To edit this file, run the following command in the default Terminal or Hyper Terminal:
You can also access this file by clicking on the menu (Hamburger icon) on the left and then going to Edit> Preferences.
When the configuration is finished, save the file to apply the changes you have made.
Removed Hyper Terminal
In case you no longer need the Hyper Terminal, you can delete it by running the following command in Terminal:
If prompted for a password, provide the password sudo.
Then the system will ask you to confirm whether you want to remove the package or not. Press y to confirm, then the Hyper Terminal will be removed from the system.
2 Answers. You need to check what your DocumentRoot is set to in your Apache configuration. So if /var/www is the DocumentRoot , which is the default on Ubuntu, then your URL will be http://machinename/myfolder/echo.php , which is what you have.
How do I get to the var directory in Linux?
/var This directory contains files which may change in size, such as spool and log files. /var/account Process accounting logs (optional). /var/adm This directory is superseded by /var/log and should be a symbolic link to /var/log. /var/backups Reserved for historical reasons. /var/cache Data cached for programs. /var/ …
How do I go to a variable in Ubuntu?
You’ll need to run a set of tasks:
- Find the configuration file — usually in /etc/apache2/sites-enabled .
- Edit the configuration files — find the DocumentRoot line, and modify it to say: DocumentRoot /var/www/mysite (replacing ‘mysite’ with whatever directory name you made.
- Restart Apache — sudo service apache2 restart .
How do I give permission to var www Ubuntu?
Leave a comment
- Establish a [new directory] at /var/www.
- Change the directory owner and group: sudo chown www-data:www-data /var/www/[new directory]
- allow the group to write to the directory with appropriate permissions: sudo chmod -R 775 /var/www.
- Add myself to the www-data group:
How do I access var in browser?
In a File Browser you can gain access to these files by opening the folders with a file browser with elevated privileges. (for read/write access) Try Alt+F2 and gksudo nautilus , then hit Ctrl+L and write /var/www and hit Enter in order to be directed to the folder.
What is the var folder for in Linux?
The /var Directory
/var is a standard subdirectory of the root directory in Linux and other Unix-like operating systems that contains files to which the system writes data during the course of its operation.
Is var log a file or a directory?
Such files are usually in /var/log. Logging is controlled by the associated . conf file. Some log files are distribution specific and this directory can also contain applications such as samba, apache, lighttpd, mail etc.
How do you access a folder in terminal?
Press Ctrl + Alt + T . This will open the Terminal. Go To: Means you should access the folder where the extracted file is in, through Terminal.
Other easy method that you can do is :
- In Terminal, type cd and make a space infrot.
- Then Drag and Drop the folder from the file browser to the Terminal.
- Then Press Enter.
How do I view files in Linux?
Following are some useful ways to open a file from the terminal:
- Open the file using cat command.
- Open the file using less command.
- Open the file using more command.
- Open the file using nl command.
- Open the file using gnome-open command.
- Open the file using head command.
- Open the file using tail command.
How do I move a folder to VAR HTML?
Read it here.
- Open Terminal.
- type sudo nautilus hit enter.
- Navigate to the target file or folder you want to change permissions (/var/www)
- Right click the file or folder (html folder)
- Select Properties.
- Click on the Permissions tab.
- Click on the Access files in the Others section.
- Select “Create and delete files”
How do I change permissions on var folder in Ubuntu?
sudo chmod 777 /var/www/html -R
Change the ownership of your folder as chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/html (this will allow only your apache to play with files)
What does — R — mean Linux?
File Mode. The r letter means the user has permission to read the file/directory. … And the x letter means the user has permission to execute the file/directory.
This makes Google Chrome an ideal browser and a must-have no matter which operating system you are running. This guide will help you install Google Chrome on Ubuntu and instructions to use it with the help of the Terminal.
Although this guide is meant for versions of Ubuntu, it should work the same way for any Linux Distribution.
Installing Google Chrome on Ubuntu
There are two methods to install Google Chrome on Ubuntu. One is using the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and the other by using the Linux Terminal. We will first explain the graphical method and briefly examine how to do it from the Command Line Interface (CLI), i.e., the Terminal.
Open Mozilla Firefox and type “Google Chrome” in the search bar or click here.
You should see a chrome window with a “Download Chrome” button, as shown in the image below. Click on the button to download the browser.
You will be given the option to download .deb or .rpm, which has to do with what Linux Distro you are using. Since this article is concerned with Ubuntu, click on the .deb package and press “Accept and Install.”
A download window should appear. Click on Save File and press OK.
Having done that, double-clicking the file, you downloaded should do. A new window will appear that will prompt you to install Google Chrome on your device. Click on “Install”.
Ubuntu will ask you to authorize the installation by entering your account password.
Alternatively, you can also install Chrome through the Terminal. To do this, we must first use a wget command.
This will download the offline installer for the browser.
Next, we install the package with the following dpkg command.
If you get any errors about missing dependencies, run the following command to forcibly install them.
Having successfully installed the Debian package, you are now ready to use Google Chrome.
Opening Google Chrome using the Terminal
Google Chrome, like any other program, can be accessed through its graphical icon. However, those that are fond of using the command-line Terminal to do things are also in luck. We will now show you a way to operate the Chrome browser through the Terminal.
Working on the Terminal allows you to access the browser using a single command. To open Google Chrome with the help of the command line, follow the steps given below:
Go to Desktop > Applications.
Type Terminal in the search bar and click on the first result.
Or you can skip the lengthy process and open a new Terminal session by pressing Ctrl + Alt + T on your keyboard.
To open Google Chrome, type the following in the Terminal:
This will load up Google Chrome with the default homepage.
Google Chrome does not require you to specify any sort of directories as it is mounted in the binary path.
Let’s look at some more ways to use the Google Chrome browser through the Terminal. Let’s say, for instance, that you wish to visit a specific website. You can do this by entering the URL of the website of your choice, as shown in the command below:
Similar to other Terminal commands, you can enter flags and command parameters with the Google Chrome run command to achieve specific tasks. The general syntax of performing this is given below.
Below is a list of flag options that you can use to achieve daily life tasks through the Terminal.
If you wish to explore your options even further, run the help command given below:
Keep in mind that to run Google Chrome on your Linux system, the computer architecture must be 64-bit.
Once you install Google Chrome the way we showed you in this guide, you also add Google’s repository, which is responsible for keeping the program up-to-date. So, you do not need to worry about updating the browser yourself.
You can find the path where Google Chrome is located by typing the following command:
You should see the path specified as shown in the image below:
You can also close the browser with the help of the Terminal by typing the following command:
With all the steps followed correctly, you are now ready to use Google Chrome on your laptop or desktop computer. Enjoy one of the fastest and most versatile browsers available to you in the present day and age.
We hope this guide helped you understand how to access Google Chrome with the help of Terminal commands. Apart from that, we also included additional information on how to maneuver through the options and URL shortcuts that come with them.
About the author
Hi there! I’m a Software Engineer who loves to write about tech. You can reach out to me on LinkedIn.
Home » SysAdmin » How to Unzip a ZIP File in Ubuntu / Linux
If you downloaded a file that ends in .tar.gz or .zip, this indicates that it has been compressed.
This guide will walk you through unzipping a zipped file in Ubuntu 18.04 or Ubuntu 20.04.
- Access to a terminal window/command line (Ctrl-Alt-T)
- Zip/unzip utility (included by default)
How to Install the Zip and Unzip Utility in Ubuntu
Ubuntu distributions usually include the zip and unzip utilities. If for some reason yours does not, use the following command to install it:
The output in our example confirms that the latest version is already installed:
Unzip a File Using the Command Line
This guide assumes that you’ve already downloaded a file that has been zipped, and that you know where it’s located. Let’s assume that we have downloaded a file called test.zip to the /home/user/Documents/ directory.
Start by opening the terminal. By default, you should start in the /home/user/ directory.
To list the contents of the directory you are currently viewing enter:
Ubuntu will color-code different entries.
Directories are colored blue, regular files are colored white (the same as the text you type).
To change to the Documents directory, use the command:
As the folder only contains the test.zip file, the output looks like this:
Note: Observe the capitalized D in Downloads. It is necessary to type the name of the directory exactly as you see it on the screen. Linux treats /Downloads and /downloads as two different directories.
Enter ls again. You’ll get a different listing – the content of the Documents folder.
To unzip the test.zip file, enter the following:
The system will decompress the test.zip file, and place a copy of its contents in the /Documents directory.
Note: Normal copying conventions apply. If the test.zip file contains a file named document.txt, and a file with that name already exists in the target directory, the system will ask if you want to overwrite the existing file.
Other Linux Unzip Commands
The zip and unzip commands can be used with additional options to have more control over how they work. Here are just a few common ones.
How to Unzip Multiple ZIP Files
For example the folder /Documents/zipped has several files zipped in it. Use the cd command to change to that directory:
To unzip all the files in that directory.:
The * sign is a wildcard, which means “any number of any characters.” So, any file that ends in .zip would be found and unzipped by entering this command.
How to Test if a ZIP File is Valid
You can use the –t option with the zip command to test the file first. Enter the following:
This is useful if you think the zipped file has been damaged or corrupted.
The system will tell you if it detects any errors.
How to Exclude Files When Unzipping a ZIP File
Some zip files have several different files included in them. You can extract all of them, or you can exclude some of them.
To exclude a particular file:
This would prevent the file a_particular_file.txt from being extracted from the zip file.
How to List the Contents of a Zip File
To view a list of the contents of a zip file use the -l option with the zip command:
unzip -l test.zip
The output lists the files within the test.zip folder.
Extract a ZIP File to a Different Directory
To specify that you want to unzip the files to a different destination than the directory you are in, type the command:
The –d switch tells the system to put the unzipped files somewhere else. You can substitute the path to a location of your choice for /home/user/destination.
This article has explained how to unzip and access the content of zip files in Ubuntu Linux.
What are the limits types in Ubuntu
Limits in an Ubuntu system are of two types:
- Soft limit: This type of limit indicates the current value of the session or user.. An Ubuntu user has the option to increase its value to the hard limit.
- Hard Limit: The superuser/root sets the maximum allowable limit for a user or session, known as the hard limit.
Now, we will explain the procedure to increase the open file limits on Ubuntu. So let’s start!
How to increase the open file limits on Ubuntu
First of all, open your Ubuntu terminal by pressing “CTRL+ALT+T”. Now, we will check out the current limits of the resources. For this, we will execute the “unlimit” command.
What is unlimit command in Ubuntu
The “unlimit” is a Linux shell command utilized to set, view, or limit the current user’s resources. It also extracts information about how many open file descriptors each process has. Many Ubuntu users execute this command to limit the resources which are in the use of a process.
How to check current limits in Ubuntu
To view the current limits set, add the “-a” option in the “unlimit” command:
Execution of the above-given command will show you the following output:
How to check the soft and hard open file limits in Ubuntu
To view the current soft limit, execute the unlimit command with the “-Sn” option:
From the below-given output, you can see that “1024” is the soft limits of the open files in our Ubuntu system:
The “-Hn” option is added to the “unlimit” command for retrieving the hard limit of the open files:
How to increase the open file limits for the current session in Ubuntu
As mentioned earlier, you can utilize the “unlimit” command for setting the current session limits. If you want to increase the open file limits for your current Ubuntu session, choose a value between the soft and hard limits and add that specific numerical value with the “-n” option. Adding the “-n” option to the “unlimit” command lets you increase the open file limits:
How to increase per-user open file limits in Ubuntu
You can also increase the open file limits for a specific user. To do so, open the limits configuration file “/etc/security/limits.conf” in the “nano” editor:
In the “nano” editor, the limit configuration file will look like this:
Now, add the following content in the “/etc/security/limits.conf” file:
* soft nproc 65535
* hard nproc 65535
* soft nofile 65535
* hard nofile 65535
linuxhint soft nproc 100000
linuxhint hard nproc 100000
linuxhint soft nofile 100000
linuxhint hard nofile 100000
- “*” denotes the rest of the system users excluding “linuxhint”
- “linuxhint” is our domain
- “soft” or “hard” is the limit type
- “nofile” item is utilized for limiting the number of the file descriptor
- “nproc” item defines the maximum user processes limit
- “100000” or “65535” are the limit values
Press “CTRL+O” and save the changes we made in the “/etc/security/limits.conf”:
In the next step, we will restrict the number of system resources a user can get in a single session by enabling the pam_limits. For this, you have to edit the “/etc/pam.d/common-session” file in your “nano” editor:
Now, add this line to enable the pam_limits for the current session:
Press “CTRL+O” to save the added content of “ /etc/pam.d/common-session” file:
How to increase system-wide open file limits in Ubuntu
Ubuntu also provides you the option to increase system-wide open file limits. For this purpose, we will edit the “/etc/sysctl.conf” file:
You can set the maximum number of file handles that the Linux kernel will allocate by using the “fs.file-max” parameter. Now, add the below-given line in the “sysctl.conf” file:
Setting the value “2097152” for “fs.file-max” parameter will set this value as maximum number of file handles:
Again, press “CTRL+O” to save the “sysctl.conf” file:
The “sysctl” command with the “-p” option will load the kernel settings from the “sysctl.conf” file. For applying the changes we have made, execute the below-given “sysctl” command in your terminal:
The execution of the above-given command will increase the maximum number of open files across the entire system:
In Ubuntu, many applications, such as the Apache web server or the Oracle databases, require a higher open file limit, resulting in an excessive number of open files, file descriptors, etc. If the number of open files exceeds the default limit, file opening difficulties and access control issues may arise. This article showed you how you can increase the open file limits in your Ubuntu system. Moreover, you have also seen how to check and increase the system-wide and per-user limits of opened files.
About the author
I am a Linux enthusiast, I love to read Every Linux blog on the internet. I hold masters degree in computer science and am passionate about learning and teaching.
In 2016, Microsoft released WSL (Windows Subsystem for Linux) to allow Linux users to run native Linux commands via a Linux terminal installed on the Windows system. This feature is available for Windows 10 and Windows 8 with the Linux terminal app can be installed via Microsoft Store.
A big question after installing a Linux terminal on Windows 10 maybe is how to access the Windows 10 files from the Linux terminal and vice versa, how to access Linux files from Windows.
Although we will use Ubuntu as an example in this article, you can also use the same methods on other Linux distribution such as Suse, Kali Linux, and so on.
How to access Windows files from the Ubuntu terminal in Windows 10
If you are already familiar with the Linux commands then you should not meet any problem to access Windows files from the Ubuntu terminal. To access Windows files, you need to mount the drive in which the files you want to access are stored in. Well, all Windows drives are basically have been mounted in the /mnt folder so you can simply go to this folder to access the Windows files. You can use the cd command to go to the /mnt folder.
And use the ls command to see the list of the drives existing on your Windows system.
Again, you can use the cd command to enter to one of the existing drives. For instance, if you want to enter to drive D, you can simply type cd d in the /mnt folder. You can use the pwd command to figure out in what folder you are currently in.
If you want to access files on the external drives (i.e flash drive), you need to manually mount the drive since Windows doesn’t automatically mount the external drives on the Linux terminal. Here are the steps.
- Find the drive location. You can do so from File Explorer.
- Create a new folder in the /mnt folder using the mkdir command. You need this folder to mount your drive.
- Say your flash drive is located in the drive G, type the following command to mount it.
The command above will mount your flash drive, which located in drive G, to the g folder on the /mnt folder. The sudo prefix indicates you run the command as root. Use the cd command to enter to the g folder.
How to access the Ubuntu files from Windows
All files and folder you created on the Ubuntu Subsystem (as well as the Ubuntu Subsystem files and folders) are stored in Windows 10, but they are hidden by the Windows system by default. To access them, you need to enable the Hidden files option on File Explorer. To do so, click the View menu and tick the Hidden files option.
The files of your Ubuntu Subsystem are located on the following path.
Therefore, we will be looking at how to use the default Ubuntu File Manager for organizing files and some of its alternatives.
Default Ubuntu File Manager
The default file manager that comes prepacked in Ubuntu is Nautilus, a Gnome based program. Nautilus is known for its ease of use and some other reliable features. For the latest versions of Ubuntu, Nautilus comes pre-installed into the system.
However, if your system lacks Nautilus, you can install it by running the following command:
After installing Nautilus, the following command needs to be run to restart Nautilus:
To check if Nautilus is installed in your computer, run the following command:
Nautilus offers all basic features that are crucial for file management. These can range from creating files and folders to searching and displaying them. To access these features, go to the directory where you want to organize your files and click on the hamburger icon on top.
As seen from the above image, Nautilus allows users to open new tabs, copy and paste their contents, allow undo and redo operations, and also show hidden files. Users can also change the zoom settings, opting to either zoom in or out or reset their selections. To top up the rest of the functionality, Nautilus offers users to sort their folder by using the filters provided.
Nautilus allows users to customize their folder using the button next to the search icon. Users can also search for their files and folders using the search icon above.
Users can also connect to the cloud or other networks by using the Other Locations button.
For further features, users have to right-click on their files and folders.
Alternatives to Nautilus
Nautilus is good as a basic file manager but you can try out some other file managers with more advanced functionality. Here are some good alternatives to Nautilus File Manager.
Dolphin is an opensource default file manager for KDE. It is known for being lightweight and is recognized as the KDE equivalent of Nautilus. It offers some smart features along with a user-friendly interface giving it a similar look to the Windows file explorer.
Just like Nautilus, Dolphin also supports having new tabs. This can be done by pressing Ctrl + T or right-clicking on a folder and selecting the Open in New Tab option. In addition to this, Dolphin also has a Split View, which can open split windows. This is better than tabs as users can see both windows together at the same time and thus makes copying of data much easier.
This can be done by clicking on the Split icon or pressing F3.
The split window looks something like the figure shown in the image below:
Another feature that makes Dolphin a quality file manager is that it’s highly customizable. You can configure the shortcuts and toolbars, adjust different panels into your interface, and even adjust the way the interface may look like.
Dolphin can further be customized using extensions or plugins which can be accessed from the Services tab in Configure Dolphin. This clearly adds more functionality to it.
Another popular file manager is Nemo, which is the Cinnamon desktop default, file manager. Just like Dolphin, it is lightweight and bears lots of similarities with Nautilus. However, the edge it has over the current Nautilus version been that it has all the missing features that the former has let go of such as desktop icons, compact view, etc. In addition to this, it has some great original features such as navigation options, progress indicators, etc.
As mentioned before, Nemo offers different view options which were replaced in the current Nautilus version. These include the ListView, Icon View, and the Compact View. Users can thus adjust and change the outlook of their folders using these.
Another feature that Nemo offers is the Toggle Location Entry. This can be accessed by clicking on the arrow button next to the search icon. This allows users to copy the directory path. This is actually a pretty useful feature as there are many instances where one wants to know the path in which they currently are.
Nemo features a sidebar that shows the file directories. This can be manipulated by using the three buttons placed at the bottom left of the directory. The image below shows the different directory places, the Tree view, and even can be used to hide the sidebar.
Nemo also provides a slider icon that can be used to zoom in and zoom out of the directory.
Nemo offers users to open folders and files either as the Root or in the terminal.
Most Efficient File Manager for Ubuntu
Data is the Gold of companies in the 21st Century, and it’s imperative to use file managers which allow the best features for organizing the files. The default Ubuntu file manager, albeit simple, offers a wide set of impeccable tools that help a lot in managing files. In addition to this, both Dolphin and Nemo are widely popular file managers themselves as both of them offer quite a diverse set of attributes. This makes them a little more efficient than Nautilus.
To give native compatibility for Linux operating systems such as Ubuntu, Debian, OpenSuse, Kali, and more… Microsoft has added a layer or feature which is known as Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL). The Windows 10 or 8 users including the latest Windows servers users can activate this feature from the control panel Turn and off windows feature option. The WSL on Windows 10/8 gives us an ability to run a different native command on Linux command-line tools or Bash environment just like a headless server running on some VirtualMachine.
However, we cannot install the Distros ISOs as we do on VirtualBox or any other virtualization software. Here, what we get is a pre-build headless Linux app available on Microsoft Windows 10 App store. Just go to the store and click on the Linux environment app and installed it on the system automatically.
Now after the installation of the Linux environments the thing which comes in mind is that after installing the Linux environment, for example, Ubuntu; where its files get saved by the Windows system. I mean if you want to just access the windows files from the Linux subsystem manually, how would you do that. Plus, is this possible to access the Windows files and drives such as C, D, E… directly from the Ubuntu Linux Subsystem? In this article, we will give answers to these questions…
Note: Until and unless you don’t know what are doing, please refrain yourself from modifying the files of your Linux subsystem manually. It could harm your Linux environment. This is the reason, why Microsoft has stored them in a hidden folder to make sure, the user couldn’t doctor them without knowing actually what he/she is doing?
How to Access Ubuntu files (windows subsystem) from windows 10
Although we are showing this tutorial using for Ubuntu subsystem, the process will be the same for others too such as OpenSUSE, Kali and more installed on WSL.
The address where Windows 10 WSL store the Linux environment file: %userprofile%\AppData\Local\Packages
Step 1: MyComputer
Go to MyComputer and open the C: Drive where all your Windows plus program files are stored.
Step 2: Show Hidden files and folders
By Default all crucial or core data files and folders in Windows are hidden and we need to unhide them manually. To do this click on the File option given in the menu of Windows Explorer.
From Folder options window click on the View tab and then under the Hidden files and folders select the Show hidden files, folders and drives.
Step 3: Access the ubuntu subsystem files from windows 10
Inside the Local Disk C: of the Windows, there is a folder –Users, click on that.
Step 4: Double click on your Windows username to open it (mine is Raj). After that, open the AppData folder which is basically a hidden folder.
Step 4: Inside the AppData open the Local->Packages->ConicalGroupLimited folder for Ubuntu. In the same way for other Linux environments, it will start with their names.
Step 5: Inside the folder double click to open the LocalState->rootfs. All the files and folders of Ubuntu Linux environment will show there.
Now click on the Home folder where you will find the UNIX username.
How to access Windows files from Ubuntu terminal
To access all Windows 10 system drives under the Command Terminal of Ubuntu or other Linux environment installed on Windows; we need to follow the mounting command of Linux.
By default, we can only use the Bash environment to access Windows files as we do in the Ubuntu/Linux headless servers.
From your Linux Bash Shell type following command to mount C: Drive:
In the same way for D: drive type
In this way, we can also mount both internal and external drives attached to our Windows 10 or 8 systems including the network drives. Also, one thing to be noted that the Bash Shell of Linux environment should be launched under the Administrative right to access the system folders of Windows. To give administrative permission just right click on the installed Linux environment such as Ubuntu and select “Run as Administrator”.
Other Useful Resources
If you are familiar with .deb packages, then AppImage is a simple concept to understand. Yes, it’s a way of installing software on Linux. It is a “Universal software package” format. So why is a tutorial required for using it? Because it is not as convenient as installing .deb packages (by double-clicking them or from terminal using GDebi), but with AppImage, you need to follow some steps to install the software.
AppImage doesn’t follow the traditional way of installing software. It doesn’t install the software. It is a compressed image containing all dependencies and libraries required to run specific software. The AppImage is executed, and then you can run the software. There are no extractions or installations required. So many people always ask the question, “how do I open AppImage in Ubuntu?”. Now, let’s start the tutorial and get a thorough explanation on installing and opening an AppImage quickly.
In this section, we will explain two different methods to open AppImage in Ubuntu.
Download the .appimage File
There is a plethora of software which you can easily download in .appimage format. GIMP, Scribus, OpenShot, and BlenSor are few famous names that are available as .appimage files.
Making the File Executable
The downloaded image won’t have execution permission by default. So, here’s how you can make it executable (no root privilege required):
Right-click on the downloaded .appimage file and navigate to the properties menu.
Go to the properties menu and select the permission tab then check Mark the “Allow executing files as a program.”
Finally, all of your AppImages will execute without having any trouble.
Making the File Executable Using Terminal
First, open the Terminal from the search menu or by pressing CTRL, ALT, and T simultaneously and use this command:
The system will execute your file, so now you can run the file by double-clicking on it. Otherwise, you can use the below command to open it:
If you are looking for uninstalling the AppImage, then open Linux terminal use the below command:
In the above commands, “Downloads” is a directory where the AppImage software is present, and the software name is the software. The “rm- f” command tells the system to remove the files from the system forcefully.
Essential Factors of .appimage File
- If the AppImage file is poorly packed, it won’t run even with the executable permissions. The file should include all the dependencies required for the software to run.
- Some AppImage files will require desktop integration, and that software will then act as any other regular installed software. It will be searchable through the applications menu.
- Initially, the .appimage file is in the download folder, but it is good to transfer it to the software file. You can also move it to the home directory.
- In some cases, there will be no option available to update the software automatically. So, there is a command-line option to check for an update. However, it depends on the developer whether the option is given or not.
AppImages is an excellent way of using software across multiple Linux Distributions. We also hope that this update feature may get improved so that it can become more convenient for the users. If you like this tutorial, then make sure to visit our website because we regularly upload the informative tutorial like this one.
About the author
A passionate Linux user for personal and professional reasons, always exploring what is new in the world of Linux and sharing with my readers.
What is a .RAR File Extension?
For users who don’t know, a RAR file is a compressed file that is split into a set of multi-volume files. This is usually done in cases where there are large file sets that are needed to be shared or transferred, hence are compressed into a zip file. Similarly, for zip files, when they are transferred or downloaded from the internet need to be extracted. A number of tools are available to help extract and compress these files within seconds, regardless of their size or quantity.
Extracting RAR Files in Linux distributions
RAR is a free tool that is pre-installed on Windows operating systems but unfortunately doesn’t support Linux platforms. If you will try extracting in Ubuntu, the archive manager will show you the following dialogue box:
This is because the system won’t recognize the file type like Windows and does not have any supported tool to extract it. In other cases, it will also display an error somewhat like this:
Read on below to find out how you can install RAR tools on Linux and use those to open, extract, and compress a file.
How to Install Unrar tool in Linux
Unrar is compatible mostly for Linux distributions where you can easily install the package from the command terminal using the apt programs.
Open Command Terminal and type the following command(s) if you’re using Ubuntu or Debian based distros:
If you are using Fedora distro, type the command in your command prompt:
For users using CentOS/ RHEL 64-bit distros, you can install the Unrar tool using these commands:
(Just remove ‘x64’ from the above command if you want to alter it for 32-bit systems)
How to Extract a RAR File in Linux
To open or extract a .rar extension file in your current working directory, type the following command in the terminal:
This will start extracting your file using the Unrar tool like this below:
Note: Since you have the Unrar tool, you can also perform these operations directly through the right click, besides using these commands on the terminal.
To open or extract a .rar extension file in any specific path or directory, type the following command in the terminal. This will extract the files and locate them in the specified directory.
If you want to open or extract a .rar extension file in their original directory, use the following command:
How to View Contents inside a RAR File in Linux
A compressed file contains multiple files of large sizes that are zipped together inside it. If you want to list out all the file contents inside an archive file, use the command below. This will display a list of files with their name, size, time, date created and permissions.
Testing a RAR File in Linux
If for instance, you have downloaded a file from the internet and would like to test its integrity, the Unrar tools offers that too. The following command will do a complete check on the archive file and its contents, and then show the results. Type:
The unrar tool that we just downloaded uses the unrar command to carry out the above tasks. It lets you extract, list out and test files. There is no option for creating a rar file with this particular tool. Therefore, we will install another Linux command-line utility called RAR to create compressed/archive files.
Installing RAR in Linux
To install the RAR command option, type the following commands in the terminal:
After you execute the commands, the result will be:
Creating RAR Files in Linux
In order to create a .rar file in Linux distribution, you will need to run the following command:
This will create an archive file name ‘filename’ for the directory filename1. See how this will look like below:
Deleting Files from any Archive
Out of the multiple files in an archive, if you want to delete a particular file through the command terminal, type the following command:
Recovering deleted Archives
If you deleted an archive file by accident or lost it through data loss, don’t worry, you can always recover it back. The following command will recover the file back or will fix it if there has been any loss or damage.
Setting password on a Particular Archive
This incredible Rar tool lets you do a number of interesting things with your archive files from creating, deleting, and adding, to changing their directories and protecting them through passwords.
If you want to protect your files from unknown access or extraction, you can set a password on them. To password-protect your file, type the following command:
Now, to verify the changes, type the command to open the directory to see if it asks for password.
RAR and UNRAR are very useful when it comes to handling and managing files in Linux. They provide multiple options to make your work easier and more convenient. When compared to Windows, things get a little complicated for Ubuntu, but these commands are simple, easy to execute and give results within seconds.
If you need more description on the commands, just the run the following two:
My current directory is buried deep in multiple subfolder layers from my home directory. If I want to open this directory in a gui-based file browser, I have to double click folder after folder to reach it. This is very time consuming. On the other hand, with very few key strokes and several times hitting the tab button, it is very easily reachable via a terminal.
I want to know if there is a way to open the current directory in a terminal onto a a file browser. What is the command to do this?
For reference, I have an ubuntu system, but I’d like to know what the commands are across the various distributions of linux.
4 Answers 4
xdg-open is part of the xdg-utils package, which is commonly installed by default in many distributions (including Ubuntu). It is designed to work for multiple desktop environments, calling the default handler for the file type in your desktop environment.
You can pass a directory, file, or URL, and it will open the proper program for that parameter. For example, on my KDE system:
- xdg-open . opens the current directory in the Dolphin file manager
- xdg-open foo.txt opens foo.txt in emacsclient, which I’ve configured to be the default handler for .txt files
- xdg-open http://www.google.com/ opens google.com in my default web browser
The application opens as a separate window, and you’ll get a prompt back in your terminal and can issue other commands or close your terminal without affecting your new GUI window.
I usually get a bunch of error message printed to stderr , but I just ignore them.
Adding the arguments xdg-open . >/dev/null 2>&1 redirects the errors and the output. This call won’t block your terminal. Binding this to an alias like filemanager=’xdg-open . >/dev/null 2>&1′ can come in handy.
Almost any GUI application (on X window systems) can be opened from a terminal window within that GUI. To open any GUI app, type the name of the executable at the shell prompt. Most file browsers take a directory as a command line argument, so you should usually pass . as the parameter.
Here are some examples for some popular systems, most X based systems work similarly.
On Gnome, you can run nautilus (the default file browser) directly, or on Gnome 2, you can use gnome-open to open any file (including directories) with the configured Gnome file handler application:
On KDE, there are two popular file browsers, I’m not aware of a command similar to gnome-open , though gnome-open can be executed within KDE, but by default it opens Gnome apps.
On OS X, as mentioned in comments, a similar command line program, open can be used.
What if you don’t know the executable name of your system’s file browser?
If on Gnome 2, use gnome-open . If on OS X, call open . . Each of these will execute the configured file browser for your GUI environment.
If you don’t know of such a command in your window system, here’s one way to find out on systems with a ps command that understands the options -u USER and -o FORMAT :
- In your terminal window, type ps -u$USER -o comm > /tmp/$$A
- In your GUI, start the file browser.
- Back in your terminal window, type ps -u $USER -o comm > /tmp/$$B (Notice the B suffix, this is a different file than step 1).
- Also in the terminal, type diff /tmp/$$[AB] .
Should display the name of your file browser. It’s possible you could see more than one name, if another program happened to start under your user id during the time between the calls to ps .