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How to use linux’s man command hidden secrets and basics

How to use linux’s man command hidden secrets and basics

Aug 22, 2018 · 4 min read

Linux is an operating system’s kernel.
But it was actually created by Linus Torvalds from Scratch.
Linux is free and open-source, that means that you can s
imply change anything in Linux and redistribute it in your own name! There are several Linux Distributions, commonly called “distros”.

Linux is Mainly used in servers.
About 90% of the in t ernet is powered by Linux servers.
This is because Linux is fast, secure, and free!
The main problem of using Windows servers are their cost. This is solved by using Linux servers.
The OS that runs in about 80% of the smartphones in the world, Android, is also made from the Linux kernel.
Most of the viruses in the world run on Windows, but not on Linux!

So, basically, a shell is a program that receives commands from the user and gives it to the OS to process, and it shows the output. Linux’s shell is its main part. Its distros come in GUI (graphical user interface), but basically, Linux has a CLI (command line interface). In this tutorial, we are going to cover the basic commands that we use in the shell of Linux.

How to use linux’s man command hidden secrets and basics

To open the terminal, press Ctrl+Alt+T in Ubuntu. There is also a GUI way of taking it, but this is better!

pwd: Tells the absolute path of current directory.

ls: list files in current directory.

ls -a: list files including hidden files.

cd: Change directory. Allows you to move to the desired directory.
eg. $cd games: navigates to game directory.
cd .. takes to parent directory
cd without any arguments takes to home directory.

mkdir and rmdir: Make and remove directories
eg. $mkdir dirname
$rmdir dirname

rm : To delete files and directories. But rm cannot simply delete a directory. Use “ rm -r” to delete a directory. In this case, it deletes both the folder and the files in it.
eg. $rm filename
$rm -r dirname

touch: Used to create a file. It can be anything, from an empty .txt file to an empty .zip file.
eg. $touch new.txt

cp: Use the cp command to copy files through the command line. It takes two arguments: The first is the location of the file to be copied, the second is where to copy.
eg. $cp new.txt Desktop

mv: Use the mv command to move files through the command line. We can also use the mv command to rename a file. For example, if we want to rename the file “ text” to “ new”, we can use “ mv text new”. It takes the two arguments, just like the cp command.

sudo: A widely used command in the Linux command line, sudo stands for “SuperUser Do”. So, if you want any command to be done with administrative or root privileges, you can use the sudo command.

apt-get: Use apt to work with packages in the Linux command line.

Use apt-get to install packages. This requires root privileges, so use the sudo command with it. e.g if you want to install the text editor jed, we can type in the command “ sudo apt-get install jed”. Similarly, any packages can be installed like this. You can upgrade the system by typing “ sudo apt-get upgrade”.
We can also upgrade the distro by typing “ sudo apt-get dist-upgrade”.

man & — help: To know more about a command and how to use it, use the man command. It shows the manual pages of the command. For example, “ man cd” shows the manual pages of the cd command. Typing in the command name and the argument helps it show which ways the command can be used (e.g., cd –help).

locate: The locate command is used to locate a file in a Linux system, just like the search command in Windows. This command is useful when you don’t know where a file is saved or the actual name of the file.
Using the -i argument with the command helps to ignore the case (it doesn’t matter if it is uppercase or lowercase). So, if you want a file that has the word “hello”, it gives the list of all the files in your Linux system containing the word “hello” when you type in “ locate -i hello”. If you remember two words, you can separate them using an asterisk (*). For example, to locate a file containing the words “hello” and “this”, you can use the command “ locate -i *hello*this”.

echo — The “ echo” command helps us move some data, usually text into a file. For example, if you want to create a new text file or add to an already made text file, you just need to type in, “ echo hello, my name is alok >> new.txt”. You do not need to separate the spaces by using the backward slash here, because we put in two triangular brackets when we finish what we need to write.

cat — Use the cat command to display the contents of a file. It is usually used to easily view programs.
e.g $cat new.txt

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Hello Geeks! Welcome to another informative article on this blog. In this article, we are gonna learn some basic but most important Linux commands that every Computer Science student should know.

You know what? This article is enough to get started with the Linux command line, all the Linux Commands explained here are enough for beginner Linux users.

No doubt, these commands are not enough to master the Linux command line, but yes, these commands are enough to get started with Linux.

So, without wasting much time, let’s see what are those basic Linux commands that you should know as a beginner.

Basic Linux Commands For Beginners

1. File Management Commands

ls This command shows a list of contents in the current directory
ls -al Formatting listing with hidden files
ls -lt Sorting the formatted listing by time modification
pwd Print current working directory name
cd Change to home directory
cd dir_name Change directory to “dir_name”
mkdir dir_name Create a directory named “dir_name”
cat >file1 Places the standard input into the file1
more file1 Output the contents of the file1
touch file_name Create a file named “file_name”
rm file1 Deleting the file named “file1”
rm -r dir Deleting the directory (folder) named “dir”
rm -f file1 Force to remove the “file1”
rm -rf dir Force to remove the directory “dir”
cp file1 file2 Copy the contents of file1 to file2
cp -r dir1 dir2 Copy dir1 to dir2; create dir2 if not present
mv file1 file2 Rename or move file1 to file2, if file2 is an existing file
ln -s file link Create symbolic link link to file

2. Process Management Commands

  • ps : To display the currently working processes
  • top : Display all running process
  • kill pid : Kill the process with given pid
  • killall proc : Kill all the process named proc
  • pkill pattern : Will kill all processes matching the pattern
  • bg : List stopped or background jobs, resume a stopped job in the background
  • fg : Brings the most recent job to foreground
  • fg n : Brings job “n” to the foreground

3. Searching

  • grep pattern file1 : Search for “pattern” in file1
  • grep -r pattern dir : Search recursively for pattern in dir
  • command | grep pattern : Search pattern in the output of a command
  • locate file1 : Find all instances of file1
  • find . -name filename : Searches in the current directory (represented by a period) and below it, for files and directories with names starting with “filename”
  • pgrep pattern : Searches for all the named processes, that matches with the pattern and, by default, returns their ID

4. System Information

  • date : Show the current date and time
  • uptime : Show current uptime
  • cal : Show this month’s calender
  • w : Display who is on line
  • whoami : Display the name of logged in user
  • finger user : Display information about user
  • uname -a : Show kernel information
  • cat /proc/cpuinfo : Cpu information
  • cat proc/meminfo : Memory information
  • man command : Show the manual for a command
  • df : Show the disk usage
  • du : Show directory space usage
  • free : Show memory and swap usage
  • whereis app : Show possible locations of app
  • which app : Show which applications will be run by default

5. Basic Network Commands

  • ping host : Ping host (host ip or domain name) and output results
  • whois domain : Get whois information for domains (for example – whois techmosphere.in)
  • dig domain : Get DNS information for domain
  • dig -x host : Reverse lookup host
  • wget file1 : Download file1
  • wget -c file1 : Continue a stopped download

6. Compression

  • tar cf file1.tar file1 : Create tar named file1.tar containing file1
  • tar xf file1.tar : Extract the files from file1.tar
  • tar czf file.tar.gz files : Create a tar with Gzip compression
  • tar xzf file.tar.gz : Extract a tar using Gzip
  • tar cjf file.tar.bz2 : Create tar with Bzip2 compression
  • tar xjf file.tar.bz2 : Extract a tar using Bzip2
  • gzip file1 : Compresses file1 and renames it to file1.gz
  • gzip -d file1.gz : Decompresses file1.gz back to file1

On Android Phone

Don’t have a laptop or PC? Don’t worry, you can practice these commands on your android smartphone with ease. You just need to install kali nethunter on your android phone.

Don’t know how to install kali Linux nethunter on an android phone? Read this article to use Kali Linux on your Android Phone.

Thanks for visiting this blog, if you have any suggestion, feel free share that in the comment section.

How to use linux’s man command hidden secrets and basics

In this article, I will explain basic terminal commands in linux. I wish you pleasant reading 🙂

Linux is an entire family of open-source Unix operating systems, that are based on the Linux Kernel. This includes all of the most popular Linux based systems like Ubuntu, Fedora, Mint, Debian, and others.

When operating a Linux OS, you need to use a shell — an interface that gives you access to the operating system’s services.

Command line interface (CLI) is one of the options. In this article, you will learn the basic command line interface commands.

This command shows you which directory you are currently in.

How to use linux’s man command hidden secrets and basics

ls (listing directory) command is used to list the files in the directory you are in.

ls -a command shows all hidden files.

ls -l command also shows type, permissions, number of hard links, owner, group, size, date, and filename information about the listed files.

-al lists files and directories with detailed information such as permissions, size, owner.

ls -R command also lists all files in the subdirectory.

How to use linux’s man command hidden secrets and basics

cd Directoryname command is used to change directories.

cd .. command is used to go up one directory.

cd- used to go to the previous directory.

cd is used to go directly to the home directory.

How to use linux’s man command hidden secrets and basics

mkdir command is used to create a directory.

mkdir dirname / newdirectory command is used to create a new directory inside another directory.

The p option is used to create a new directory between 2 existing directories. mkdir -p Parentdirectory / Newdirectory / Subdirectory

How to use linux’s man command hidden secrets and basics

touch command is used to create a new file.

How to use linux’s man command hidden secrets and basics

The rm command is used to delete the specified file.

The rmdir command is used to delete the specified directory.

If the directory is not empty, the rmdir command does not delete the directory, rm -R command is used to delete the directory recursively.

The rm -i command shows a message confirming the deletion before the deletion takes place.

How to use linux’s man command hidden secrets and basics

cat command is used to view the contents of a file.

cat> filename creates a new file

cat filename1 filename2> filename3 joins two files (1 and 2) and stores the output of them in a new file (3)

How to use linux’s man command hidden secrets and basics

cp command is used to copy files from the current directory.

How to use linux’s man command hidden secrets and basics

This command is very similar to cp. The file is moved to the specified directory with the mv filename / directory command.

The file is renamed with the mv filename newfilename command.

How to use linux’s man command hidden secrets and basics

  1. grep

grep command is used to search for words in the file.

Normally the grep command is case sensitive. The grep -i command removes case insensitivity.

There are many grep commands available, man grep command is used to see other options.

How to use linux’s man command hidden secrets and basics

locate command works just like search in windows, it is used to find the location of the file.

The locate -i command is used to remove case sensitivity.

How to use linux’s man command hidden secrets and basics

Similar to the locate command, find command is used to search for files. The difference is that the command is used to find files in a specific directory.

How to use linux’s man command hidden secrets and basics

Short for “SuperUser Do”, this command allows you to do tasks that require administrator or root permissions.

So, if you want any command to be done with administrative or root privileges, you can use the sudo command.

This command will ask you to enter your user password.

The chmod command is used to change the read, write and execute permissions of files and directories.

The “ who” values we can use are:

u: User, meaning the owner of the file. g: Group, meaning members of the group the file belongs to. o: Others, meaning people not governed by the u and g permissions. a: All, meaning all of the above. If none of these are used, chmod behaves as if “a” had been used.

The “ what” values we can use are:

-: Minus sign. Removes the permission. +: Plus sign. Grants the permission. The permission is added to the existing permissions. If you want to have this permission and only this permission set, use the = option, described below. =: Equals sign. Set a permission and remove others.

The “ which” values we can use are:

r: The read permission. w: The write permission. x: The execute permission.

For example, chmod + x filename makes the file executable.

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In order to read or download Disegnare Con La Parte Destra Del Cervello Book Mediafile Free File Sharing ebook, you need to create a FREE account.

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eBook includes PDF, ePub and Kindle version

We have made it easy for you to find a PDF Ebooks without any digging. And by having access to our ebooks online or by storing it on your computer, you have convenient answers with How To Read A Man Manual . To get started finding How To Read A Man Manual , you are right to find our website which has a comprehensive collection of manuals listed.
Our library is the biggest of these that have literally hundreds of thousands of different products represented.

Finally I get this ebook, thanks for all these How To Read A Man Manual I can get now!

cooool I am so happy xD

I did not think that this would work, my best friend showed me this website, and it does! I get my most wanted eBook

wtf this great ebook for free?!

My friends are so mad that they do not know how I have all the high quality ebook which they do not!

It’s very easy to get quality ebooks 😉

so many fake sites. this is the first one which worked! Many thanks

wtffff i do not understand this!

Just select your click then download button, and complete an offer to start downloading the ebook. If there is a survey it only takes 5 minutes, try any survey which works for you.

lol it did not even take me 5 minutes at all! XD

Table of Contents

In this article we will cover below topics

  • Create hidden files and folders/directories
  • Linux show hidden files and folders/directories
  • Linux find hidden files and folder/directories
  • Check size of hidden files and folder/directories

The commands from this article to view hidden files and folders can be used across any Linux platform such as Ubuntu, Debian, Linux Mint, RHEL, CentOS, SuSE etc or any Unix node such as HP-UX, Solaris, etc.

I am using RHEL/CentOS 8 node installed on Oracle VirtualBox . Please do let me know via comment section if you face any issues following the commands from this article to view hidden files or folders in Linux or Unix.

Create hidden Files

To create hidden files you just need to make sure the filename starts with dot character ( . ). In Linux any filename which starts with dot ( . ) character is considered as hidden file. For example here I create a normal file using touch command

How to use linux’s man command hidden secrets and basics

To list the file, as you see since the filename does not starts with dot ( . ) character, it is not hidden

Next we rename the file and make it .hidden_file starting with (.)

Next if you try to list the available files, we don’t see hidden_file anymore.

Check alias on this node

As you see there is an alias for ls command so by default it is configured to hidden files and folders. To remove this temporarily execute ” unlias ls “

Next show hidden files and folders using ls , now this works as expected as we don’t see hidden folders or files.

This is temporary fix only for the current session, you need to check where this setting is configured for alias , it may be /etc/profile or /etc/bashrc some other system file based on your distribution.

Similarly to create hidden files you can just put a ( . ) infront of the filename, for example to create hidden files with filename ” my_file “:

Create hidden folder or directory

How to use linux’s man command hidden secrets and basics

The steps to create hidden folder or directory in Linux or Unix is similar to create hidden files. We just need to make sure the folder name starts with dot ( . ) character.

Now list the available files in current directory, as expected we don’t see any directory/folder since the folder is hidden. So we were able to create hidden folder here.

Linux show hidden files and folders with ‘ls’ command

  • In this example we will use ls command in Linux show hidden files and folders.
  • We can use ls command with ” -a ” to show all files including hidden files and folder.
  • With -a “we do not ignore entries starting with . ” that means also Linux show hidden files and folders.
  • For example to show hidden files and folders which we created in above steps, navigate to your directory and execute ls -a
  • We have also used -l to give us a long list so we use ls -al to show all files under test directory in long list format

How to use linux’s man command hidden secrets and basics

As you see we were able to show hidden folders and files with ” ls -a ” which we had created earlier in this article.

Linux show hidden files and folders with ‘find’ command

Now with ls command we were able to show hidden files in one directory or may be multiple directories in Linux and Unix. But with ls it is little tricky to show hidden folders and files across all partitions. Here we can find hidden files using find command in Linux or Unix.

How to use linux’s man command hidden secrets and basics

Now from our chapter ” create hidden files ” and ” create hidden directory “, we know that hidden files start with dot ( . ) character. So we can use this trick with find command to find hidden files.

For example to find hidden files use -type f under /etc/ directory we can use below command

Here we are only search of files using ” -type f ” and any filename starting with dot ( . )

With Linux show hidden files and folders we can use the same command with -type d to find hidden folders under /usr

Here we could not have used ” ls -a ” to show hidden files in all these directories without using extra commands, so find is a better alternative to find hidden folder and files in Linux or Unix.

Check size of hidden files and folders

How to use linux’s man command hidden secrets and basics

Now once you find hidden files or folders, you may also wish to check size of hidden files or folders.

For example we will find hidden files under our

So we have two hidden files, we can use ls with -Sh to check size of hidden files but it again has it’s own challenges.

  • -S means sort by file size
  • -h means print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

We use ls -lSha to show and check size of hidden file but as you see ls could only identify .hidden_file in the current folder but missed .hidden_file_2 available inside .hidden_directory

We will use du command to check size of hidden files in Linux or Unix. du command is used to estimate file space usage. We must combine du with find commands to first we find hidden files and folders and then we check size of hidden files using du command

For example to check size of hidden files under /test folder

Similarly to check size of hidden files under /tmp folder

Lastly I hope the steps from this article to Linux show hidden files and folders, create hidden files, create hidden folder and find hidden files and folders in Linux and Unix was helpful. So, let me know your suggestions and feedback using the comment section.

Related Posts

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I need to run a curl command that accesses a website that another person has the password to.

e.g. curl –basic –user myfriendsname:friendspassword http://www.updateinfo.com

I need a way where I can launch this script without being able to see my friend’s password.

How to use linux’s man command hidden secrets and basics

2 Answers 2

Just pass them the keyboard (or a screen / tmux share) and have them type it in.

If you had checked man curl or the curl FAQ, you would know that curl has the –config / -K parameter to:

Specify which config file to read curl arguments from. The config file is a text file in which command line arguments can be written which then will be used as if they were written on the actual command line. . (man curl)

For example, you could store and decrypt the password with gpg . The decrypt parameter is -d .

Initially I did not provide a complete solution, because that would be giving you a fish, when you learning to fish yourself is more valuable.

But since you seem really unsure about how to proceed, here’s a quick and dirty script in Python 3.3 to manage the HTTP password secret.

Just download that script (or clone repo with git), chmod u+x ./curling-with-secrets.py then run it with ./curling-with-secrets –help , and you’ll see this:

The script creates a file, secret.enc given by the variable secretfile , in its directory by using openssl to encrypt the file using the sha512sum salted hash of the filepath as the passphrase. This does not provide a high level of security, but it would take a bit of effort for anyone to view the password, whereas storing it in cleartext makes viewing the password accidentially with cat or quicklook in OS X far too easy. Your friend could harden this by changing the encryption mechanism and the token() function, then storing the file in a location that your user account does not have read permissions, but does have execute permissions, and owned by another user and group, supposing you do not have sudoers or root access to the host.

After the secretfile is created, the script runs curl with the specified user authentication and url passed on the command line. These options are passed to STDIN to curl using the -K – option (which reads a configuration file from STDIN ), formatted as a curl configuration file. You can easily extend this to suit your needs following man curl . 🙂

I am not really much of a Python person, so there’s probably some kinks in this script, but it could be a good starting point for you. You should definitely test it throughly.

This post and this website contains affiliate links. See my disclosure about affiliate links.

In Linux, as you should already know, there is the concept of hidden files and hidden folders. It is not exactly hidden in the literal sense, but all that means is that the file managers and file system utilities will not display these types of files (or folders) by default.

The hidden file concept is not a security feature and it does not provide any extra protection compared to other files. However, there are a couple of reasons (or benefits) for these kind of files.

  • These files are usually a mechanism to store user preference or system files that are not modified by user regularly.
  • They are also used by different utilities to store configuration and state of the programs. As these files are not actively used by user on a normal day-to-day basis, it makes sense to hide them in most cases.
  • It also allows the file manager utilities to prevent cluttering up the user interface and provide a soft division between user files and user specific configuration files.

Any file or folder whose name start with a dot (.) is a hidden file, also known as dot file. These files will not be displayed by default when listing the contents of a folder. These files can be referenced just as any file, by using the name of the file (including the dot).

We will see how you can view these files using the most popular directory listing commands and file managers.

ls command

The ls command is probably the most used command line utility and it lists the contents of the specified directory. In order to display all files, including the hidden files in the folder, use the -a or –all option with ls.

This will display all the files, including the two implied folders: . (current directory) and .. (parent folder). If you want to omit the display of these two folders, then use the -A or –almost-all option.

This is quite useful, if you are using the output of the command as input to some other script. You probably do not the script to loop in the current folder (depending on the script).

If you want to display only the hidden files, then you will need to specify a regular expression with the ls command., the following will display just the hidden file and folders.

The -d option is to ensure that the directory contents are not printed out for each directory in the list.

dir command

Another popular command used to display directory contents is dir. Almost all options for dir is the same as ls, which means everything that was shown for ls in the previous section will work for dir as well.

will display all files, hidden files and the implied folders (. and ..).

will display all files, folders including the hidden folders but excluding both . and ..

will display just the hidden files and hidden folders.

KDE File Manager (dolphin)

The default file manager in KDE is Dolphin. The default setting in Dolphin is not to display hidden or dot files. There are couple of different ways you can enable the option here.

The easiest is probably the keyboard shortcut Alt+. (Alt and dot). You can easily enable the display and disable it again using the same shortcut.

The other option is using the menu option. Click on the Hamburger icon on the menu bar (for Settings/Configuration). In the drop down menu, you will see the option named Show Hidden Files. Click and select it on it to enable the display of hidden files.

You can leave that option selected, if you want to always display the hidden files. The other commonly used file manager is Konqueror, which uses embedded dolphin to display the file system, as well.

Gnome File Manager (files or nautilus)

The default file manager in Gnome on most distros is Gnome Files. It was formerly known as Nautilus. The keyboard shortcut to display hidden files in Nautilus is Ctrl+H. This shortcut can be used to toggle the display of dot files.

The other option is to change it in the configuration. Open Edit -> Preferences and navigate to the Views tab. Select the option Shown hidden and backup files. In modern or latest versions, this option is in Files -> Preferences menu.

Xfce File Manager (thunar)

Xfce is a popular light weight desktop environment, and the default file manager is thunar. The keyboard shortcut is display hidden files is again Ctrl+H just as with Gnome File Manager.

You can find the option with in the menu as well, as with other file managers. Click on View in the menu bar, and select Show Hidden Files option.

Midnight Commander

Midnight Commander is a command line based file manager which has a loyal following. The keyboard shortcut to display dot files here is Alt + . (Alt-Period).

There is also a configuration setting with in Panel Options. Open Options from the menu and then Panel Options. Select the option Show Hidden Files.

No matter which file manager you are using, there should be an option to display hidden files. Most times, it is disabled by default and as it should be. You can try first by right clicking and checking the context menu. The next place to check is either the Settings or Preferences dialog which is often in the Edit or View menu.