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How to treat sexually transmitted diseases during pregnancy

How to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases During Pregnancy

For women, pregnancy is a cheerful time, but most people will experience new health problems. You may get a sexually transmitted disease (STD) during pregnancy. Obviously, you’re too worried about your baby and your health. How you can treat the disease without impacting your baby’s health. It’s a common question asked by most of women with pregnancy. In fact, some STDs may have serious signs and treatments may be dangerous for your baby. So, it’s really important for you to look for best treatment options that help protect you and your baby.

Most common STDs for pregnancy

You may get an STD through sexual contact during your pregnancy. An STD in this period can be worse and have serious impact on both your baby and you. In many types of STDs, there are some diseases you may get easily:

– Human papillomavirus (HPV). Most people who have sex will contract the disease. It can lead to cancers like cervical, anal, penile cancer in severe cases. Also, HPV causes genital warts in most cases.

– Genital herpes. The herpes simplex virus type 2 is the main cause of the disease. It usually causes itching and blisters in genital area. You’re most infected when your partner has blisters.

– Chlamydia. It’s the most commonly STDs in the US. It’s a form of bacterial infection. The disease mostly causes pain during urination and leads to severe complication if you leave it untreated.

– Gonorrhea. Burning and pain are the common signs of this disease. You may get it during your pregnancy if your partner doesn’t wear a condom during sex. Its treatment with antibiotics may affect your baby.

– Hepatitis B. You can catch the disease through sex if your partner develops it. Hepatitis may not show noticeable symptoms. But you can identify it by fever, fatigue, yellowing of the white part of the eyes.

How can cure an STD during your pregnancy

1. Meet your doctor

An STD may affect your health and your baby. So, it’s important for you to meet your doctor that will give a diagnosis correctly. Then, she/ he will direct you how to pass the disease without impacting your baby. The first thing you need to tell when meeting doctor is to describe your symptoms and talk about your concern. It’s important to show your openness and honesty with him/her. Let them know if you’re worried about some things.

How to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases During Pregnancy

2. Get tests

After telling your concern, you may get some tests to diagnose what type of infection you get. Treatments also based on your disease. You shouldn’t attempt to treat an STD independently. This may lead to complications and affect both you and your child. Try to ask your doctor some questions, such as:

– Is it treatable?

– How can medicines affect me and my baby?

– What are risks linked to the disease?

The doctor will answer your questions clearly and give you a treatment plan to follow.

3. Follow the directions of your doctor

Everyone will have different treatment plan, it depends on the results of your tests. So, you need to follow the instructions to cure your disease. If you leave it untreated, your STD may cause health problems such as premature delivery and disability. Death even can occur. In cases of taking antibiotic, you need to follow your treatment carefully. You should talk your doctor immediately when having some strange signs. Most bacterial infections have to take antibiotics that prevent its spreading to the baby.

4. Heal a viral infection

Some STDs that are caused by the virus can’t be treated. But you can relieve their symptoms and prevent outbreaks with treatments. Try to ask your doctor about safety cures for your health and baby. Instead of taking antibiotic, your doctor may recommend some antiviral creams of foods that fight your disease. For example, if you’re facing with HPV, VidaroX may be given. It’s the best antiviral cream to cure HPV. Besides, it’s made from natural and antiviral ingredients, so it’s safe for your health and baby.

How to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases During Pregnancy

Or when you get genital herpes during your pregnancy, you can apply ProsurX to infected area. It’s also an antiviral cream to cure your herpes and prevent the virus from spreading. In many cases, a viral condition may spread to the baby unless cures. So, you need to cure your viral infection.

5. Keep yourself and your baby healthy

After treatments, you need to take a look at your health. If your disease doesn’t go away or outbreaks recur after a long time, ask your doctor immediately. Besides, you should avoid harmful foods like alcohol, processed foods or trans fat foods. They increase your triggers and aren’t good for your baby.

The other important thing is caring for your emotions. Most pregnant women experience some troubles of emotions. So, you can be happy or get angry in a minute. If getting an STD, your emotion is affected strongly. When combined hormonal changes, it will have bad effect on your baby. Thus, you need to take rest and think about positive things.

Pregnancy is a happy and important period. So, you need to take care of your health carefully that protects yourself from an STD. Try to ask your partner wear a condom when having sex. If you get it unluckily, try to follow the instructions of your doctor. It’s important for cure your disease to make sure that it can’t affect your baby.

How to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases During Pregnancy

What are sexually transmitted infections and how can they affect my pregnancy?

A sexually transmitted infection (STI)—sometimes referred to as a sexually transmitted disease (STD)—is a bacterial or viral illness that you can get from having genital, oral, or anal sex with an infected partner. STIs can have serious health consequences for you and your baby.

Sex isn’t the only way some of these infections are transmitted. For example, you can also become infected with the hepatitis B virus – which can survive outside the body for at least a week—from contact with contaminated needles or other sharp instruments, contact with the blood or open sores of an infected person, or even by sharing household items like a toothbrush or razor.

Some infections can pass to your baby through the placenta or be transmitted during labor and delivery or when your water breaks. Newborn infections can be very serious (even life threatening), and some may lead to long-term irreversible health and developmental problems. What’s more, some STIs raise your risk of miscarriage, preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM), preterm birth, uterine infection, and stillbirth.

Some of the most common STIs include:

How can I find out whether I have any STIs?

Because it’s so important to detect and treat STIs during pregnancy, your practitioner will screen for many of these infections during your first prenatal visit. (Be sure to let her know about any STIs you’ve had in the past, too, or if you or your mate has more than one sexual partner or has ever shared needles – for drug use or tattooing, for example). If you’re at high risk, you’ll be screened again in your third trimester—or sooner, if you or your partner develop any STI symptoms.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that all pregnant women be screened for HIV, HBV, syphilis, and chlamydia. Even if you’re not in a high-risk relationship right now, some STIs can lurk in your body for years without symptoms, so you want to be sure you or your partner didn’t unknowingly contract one in the past. The CDC also suggests that women be screened for gonorrhea and hepatitis C if they have risk factors.

And if there’s any chance that you’ve been exposed to an STI during your pregnancy, or if you or your partner has any unusual symptoms, let your practitioner know right away so you can be retested. If you do have an STI, you’ll want to learn all you can about the risks and treatment options.

How can I avoid getting an STI?

The only sure way to avoid getting an STI is to abstain from sex completely (including vaginal, oral, and anal sex), or to have sex only with a partner you’re absolutely sure has a clean bill of health, doesn’t use intravenous drugs, and has sex only with you. If you’re not in that situation, here’s what you need to do:

Don’t have sex with anyone who has sores or symptoms of an STI, including a partner you believe to be monogamous. If you suspect your partner has sex with other people or uses IV drugs, be sure to use a latex condom every time you have intercourse and a dental dam every time you have oral sex. These will reduce the risk of transmission of most STIs.

Be aware that having one untreated STI may raise your risk of contracting another potentially more dangerous one, like HIV, if you’re exposed to it. (One more reason to not postpone getting tested—and treated, if necessary—if you or your partner has symptoms.)

With a few exceptions, if you’re being treated for an STI, your partner also needs to be treated, and you should not have sex until you’ve both completed treatment and are symptom-free. Otherwise, you’ll just keep passing the infection back and forth.

If you’re at high risk for STIs, or if your partner or any member of your household is a hepatitis B carrier, be sure to get vaccinated against hepatitis B. This vaccine is safe to get during pregnancy.

After you give birth, if you’re 26 years old or younger, you can get vaccinated against four strains of HPV, a virus which can cause cervical cancer.

In 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved a vaccine, Gardasil, that offers protection from the two most common high-risk strains of HPV, which are responsible for about 70 percent of cervical cancers (as well as some vulvar and vaginal cancers), and two strains that cause about 90 percent of HPV genital warts. The CDC and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists currently recommend that the vaccine, which has been approved for girls and women 9 to 26 years of age, be given routinely to girls at age 11 or 12, as well as to non-pregnant females 13 to 26 years of age who have not yet been vaccinated.

Can I be treated for an STI while I’m pregnant?

Yes. The treatment will vary depending on the STI. Antibiotics can cure non-viral infections, such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis, and there are a number of antibiotics that are safe to use during pregnancy.

Viral infections, like herpes and HIV, don’t respond to antibiotics. You can’t cure herpes, but your caregiver may prescribe an antiviral medication for you to take during the last month of pregnancy to minimize the chance that you’ll have an outbreak at the onset of labor. If you’re HIV positive, you’ll need to take a combination of antiretroviral medications to keep yourself as healthy as possible and to reduce the risk of your baby becoming infected.

Gonorrhea and Chlamydia

Gonorrhea and chlamydia are bacterial STDs/STIs that can be treated with antibiotics given either orally or by injection. Because the infections often occur together, people who have one infection are typically treated for both by their health care provider. 1 Recent sexual partners should be treated at the same time.

Genital Herpes

Genital herpes outbreaks can be treated with antiviral drugs. Although this medication can limit the length and severity of outbreaks, it does not cure the infection. In addition, daily suppressive therapy (daily use of antiviral medication) for herpes can reduce the likelihood of transmission to partners. 2 A pregnant woman known to have the infection must take additional care because she can pass the infection to her infant during delivery. Women who first acquire genital HSV during pregnancy are at highest risk of transmission to their infants. If a pregnant woman has an outbreak when she goes into labor, she may need to have a cesarean section (C-section) to prevent the infant from getting the virus during birth. 3

Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

A person who has an HPV infection cannot be cured. However, many HPV infections can be prevented with vaccination. 4 Furthermore, a health care provider can treat genital warts caused by the virus 5 as well as monitor and control a woman’s risk of cervical cancer through frequent screening with Pap smear tests. 4

Syphilis

If recognized during the early stages, usually within the first year of infection, syphilis can be treated with a singular intramuscular injection of antibiotic. A person being treated for syphilis must avoid sexual contact until the chancre sores caused by the bacteria are completely healed to avoid infecting other people.

If a person does not recognize the infection early, or does not seek treatment immediately, longer treatment with antibiotics may be required. If left untreated, the infection can progress even further and potentially cause death. Although antibiotics can prevent the infection from getting worse, they cannot reverse damage that has already occurred. 6

Bacterial Vaginosis

Bacterial vaginosis can be treated with antibiotics, typically metronidazole or clindamycin. Generally, male sexual partners of women with bacterial vaginosis do not need to be treated because treatment of partners has not been shown to reduce the risk of recurrence.

Treatment during pregnancy is recommended primarily for women at risk for preterm labor or having a low birthweight infant. 7

Trichomoniasis

Trichomoniasis can be treated with a single dose of an antibiotic, usually either metronidazole or tinidazole, taken by mouth. Often, Trichomonas infection recurs, so it is important to make sure that both you and your sexual partners are treated if you are diagnosed with this infection. 8

Viral Hepatitis

  • Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infects the liver and may cause abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Usually the infection gets better on its own without requiring treatment. In some cases, however, individuals may have lasting damage to their livers or may have such severe nausea and vomiting that they must be admitted to the hospital. 9
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can cause a lifelong infection but can be treated with antiviral medications. People with HBV infection will need to see a liver specialist with experience treating individuals with chronic liver disease. These individuals need to take special care not to pass on the virus to their sexual partners, and sexual partners should receive hepatitis B vaccine if not already immune. 9
  • Hepatitis C virus can cause immediate illness affecting the liver or, more commonly, it can be a silent, chronic infection. As with hepatitis B, individuals with HCV may have a lifelong infection and will always be at risk of passing the virus on to their sexual partners. 10 New treatments are available that can clear the infection in some individuals.

HIV/AIDS

There is no cure for HIV/AIDS. However, research into new treatments has improved outcomes for people living with the disease. A combination of antiretroviral drugs can be given in highly active antiretroviral therapy to control the virus, promote a healthy immune system, help people with the virus live longer lives, and reduce the risk of transmission. 11

During Pregnancy

Pregnant women who have certain types of STDs/STIs may pass them on to their infants during pregnancy or delivery. Therefore, it is important for women to be tested for such STDs/STIs as part of their early prenatal care to help ensure delivery of a healthy infant.

The specific treatment will depend on which STD/STI is involved. 12

Citations

  1. Woodward, C., & Fisher, M. A. (1999). Drug treatment of common STDs: Part I. Herpes, syphilis, urethritis, chlamydia and gonorrhea. American Family Physician, 60, 1387-1394.
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013, February). Genital Herpes—CDC Fact Sheet. Retrieved March 19, 2013, from http://www.cdc.gov/std/herpes/stdfact-herpes.htm
  3. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2011, May) Frequently asked questions. FAQ054. Gynecologic problems: Genital herpes. Retrieved June 2, 2012, from http://www.acog.org/

/media/For%20Patients/faq054.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20120718T1711285085 (PDF – 640 KB)

  • Committee on Infectious Diseases. (2012). HPV vaccine recommendations. Pediatrics, 129, 602-605.
  • Wolf, R., & Davidovici, B. (2010). Treatment of genital warts: Facts and controversies. Clinics in Dermatology, 28, 546-548.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010, February 16). Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): Syphilis. Retrieved June 3, 2012, from http://www.cdc.gov/std/syphilis
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010, September 14). Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): Bacterial vaginosis (BV). Retrieved June 6, 2012, from http://www.cdc.gov/std/bv/
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010, September 15). Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): Trichomoniasis. Retrieved June 3, 2012, from http://www.cdc.gov/std/trichomonas
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011, January 28). Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs):Vaccine-preventable STDs. Retrieved June 3, 2012, from http://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment/2010/vaccine.htm#a1
  • Ward, R. P., & Kugelmas, M. (2005). Using pegylated interferon and ribavirin to treat patients with chronic hepatitis C. American Family Physician, 72, 655-662.
  • Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. (2012). Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved June 3, 2012, from http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/guidelines
  • Panel on Treatment of HIV-Infected Pregnant Women and Prevention of Perinatal Transmission. (2011, September 14). Recommendations for use of antiretroviral drugs in pregnant HIV-1-infected women for maternal health and interventions to reduce perinatal HIV transmission in the United States. Retrieved June 3, 2012, from http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/contentfiles/lvguidelines/PerinatalGL.pdf (PDF – 4.66 MB)
  • How to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases During Pregnancy

    Table of Contents

    How to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases During PregnancyIt is sad to note that in spite of several warnings, many women still fail to protect themselves from Sexually Transmitted Diseases and their after effects. Scores of women out there suffer from STDs on a day to day basis.

    Sexually Transmitted Diseases During Pregnancy

    And while the effects of these diseases can be easily ignored in normal circumstances, the potential dangers they could cause to the body would need to be carefully scrutinized in the case of pregnant women.

    STDs and Pregnancy

    STD does not know a pregnant woman from an otherwise normal woman. And there are no exceptions for pregnant women when it comes to STDs. A pregnant woman can contract STDs as easily as a non pregnant woman. However, in the case of pregnant women, the risks posed by these diseases increase manifold, with the possibility of the infection spreading to the developing fetus as well.

    Effects of STDs on Pregnant Women

    The consequences of STDs can be the same for both pregnant and non pregnant women. Some women may not experience any symptoms at all. However, in the case of pregnant women, the chances of contracting certain conditions increase manifold. These include chronic hepatitis, cancer, cirrhosis etc.

    Pregnant women with STDs also stand greater chances of suffering from premature labor, miscarriage, uterine infections post delivery, and premature rupture of the uterine membranes that enclose the baby etc.

    Effects of STDs on the Fetus and Baby

    The alarming thing is that STDs during pregnancy have very strong chances of passing over from the mother to the fetus via the placenta. This could seriously hamper the fetus’s normal growth and could even lead to life threatening conditions for both the mother and the baby inside.

    Accordingly, a pregnant woman who has STDs has high chances of infecting her baby during pregnancy (the fetus), during delivery or post pregnancy. Certain STDs like syphilis can infect the developing fetus during the initial stages of pregnancy itself. These diseases can cross over to the fetus from the placenta and could put the baby at risk of permanent health related defects.

    How to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases During Pregnancy

    Certain STDs like Chlamydia, genital herpes, gonorrhea and hepatitis B etc. can affect the baby during delivery. These diseases cross from the mother to the baby via the vaginal canal during labor. It is even possible for babies to contract HIV from their mothers during delivery. On the other hand, STDs like HIV can also affect a baby post pregnancy via breast feeding.

    Also Read

    Some of the more serious issues caused by STDs that are transmitted from mothers to their babies include stillbirth, blood related infections like neonatal sepsis, low weight during birth, neurological damages in the brain, motor function disorders, eye infections like conjunctivitis, congenital abnormalities like organ damage, blindness or deafness, chronic liver disease, pneumonia, meningitis, cirrhosis and acute hepatitis etc.

    A sad fact about these diseases is that while some of them can be detected at birth itself, some tend to grow with the child and manifest only after several weeks, months or years.

    Treatments for Pregnant Women with STDs

    Certain STDs can be effectively treated during pregnancy to prevent the infection from spreading to the fetus or baby. These include conditions like gonorrhea, vaginosis, Chlamydia, syphilis and other bacterial infections etc. which are usually treated using antibiotics.

    STDs like HIV and genital herpes etc. cannot be treated completely but can be kept at bay during pregnancy with the help of prescribed medications. Again, these diseases cannot be cured completely but can be curbed to a certain extent to minimize the spread of the infection.

    Sexually transmitted diseases, which are usually known as STDs, spread when one has sex with the infected person. However, these diseases are serious and they require treatment no matter whether you are pregnant or not. The risk definitely increases when you are pregnant because most of these would infect your unborn child also.

    Your doctor will take necessary tests to find out whether you are infected with any of the virus or not during your first prenatal visit. But if you have sex with someone infected after that visit you will have to go through more tests. For this, you should be aware of the symptoms of STDs and which of them are curable.

    Symptoms of STDs

    Sometimes there are no symptoms at all, but if there are, they would be

    • Skin rash with pain or without it
    • Sores or warts near the opening of vagina or anus
    • Weight loss
    • Loose stool
    • Night sweats
    • Swelling or redness near vagina
    • Discharge from the vagina
    • Bleeding from vagina apart from that during monthly period
    • Painful urination
    • Aches, fever and chills
    • Severe itching near vagina
    • Discolouring of the skin

    How can STDs affect pregnancy?

    STDs can be really harmful not only for you, but for your developing baby also.

    HIV/AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)

    This is one of the non-curable STDs, but science has developed to prevent it from getting transmitted to the unborn. It is almost preventable, but if it gets passed on to the baby, results would be disastrous.

    This disease can damage the liver of the mother to any extent and if the child is not treated within an hour of birth, he will be the carrier of Hepatitis B for life. There is no cure for this disease but it can be prevented by vaccination.

    Women infected with this disease carry risks of preterm delivery and miscarriage. If the newborn gets exposed, it might have severe eye infection. However, it can be treated to prevent it from affecting the developing child.

    Herpes is a disease which is not highly infectious until the time of delivery. This is the reason why most women with herpes have cesarean section to prevent the disease from getting transmitted to the child. Herpes are not curable, but they can be treated to save the child from getting infected.

    This is one of the most common STDs and an infected pregnant woman is more likely to deliver the child prematurely or goes through the risks of miscarriage . If the child is born infected, it can develop blindness, joint infection or blood infection that could be life threatening.

    This is an infection that may cause pain during sex or when urinating. It contains risks of premature birth or low birth weight . It can be cured if diagnosed on time.

    Syphilis carries the risk of miscarriage for the mother and stillbirth and mental and physical problems in the newborn, if infected. However, there are antibiotics that can be given to prevent the baby from getting infected.

    If you suspect any of the symptoms especially when you are pregnant, it is advisable to consult your doctor for that. Immediate treatment is the only and best way to protect you and your baby.


    What are the symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases? How can sexually transmitted diseases prove risky for pregnant women? How to prevent sexually transmitted diseases during pregnancy? Discuss here.

    STIs Can Affect Pregnancy And Infants

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections passed from person to person through sexual activity. Pregnant women with an STD may infect the baby or have pregnancy complications. Different STIs affect pregnancy and the baby in a variety of ways.

    How to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases During Pregnancy

    Treatment is key

    With all STDs, treatment prior to and during pregnancy is important. Most complications STDs can cause can be avoided with proper medical care during pregnancy. Some infections can be cured by antibiotics while some are viral infections and cannot be cured. However, taking antiviral medications or other preventive measures can reduce the risk of passing the infection to the baby.

    Human papillomavirus

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common STI. HPV usually doesn’t present worrisome symptoms. Sometimes, however, genital warts may appear around the vagina. Extremely large warts can block the birth canal. Doctors may offer a cesarean section as an option. HPV treatment is usually delayed until after delivery.

    Chlamydia

    An asymptomatic bacterial infection, chlamydia has been linked with low birth weight and premature labor. Infants can be infected at birth and develop pneumonia or eye infections. Antibiotics during pregnancy and eye ointments for infants can prevent further infections.

    Gonorrhea

    Gonorrhea is another bacterial infection that presents no obvious symptoms. During pregnancy, gonorrhea can cause miscarriage, premature birth, or infection of the baby at birth. These infections can result in severe eye infections, blindness, as well as blood and joint infections. Antibiotics are used to treat the mother and the infant, if infected.

    Genital herpes

    This STD can cause pregnancy complications during delivery. Any genital herpes present can increase the risk of infecting the baby during childbirth. Doctors may prescribe a cesarean section to avoid infection.

    Hepatitis B

    A liver infection, hepatitis B can be transmitted to the newborn baby or cause a premature delivery. Hepatitis may also cause low birth weight in infants. Antibodies can reduce the risk of infection if caught early enough.

    Syphilis

    This infection can be passed to the baby or, worse, cause a miscarriage. Syphilis can cause fatal infections that can lead to organ disorders. Doctors will prescribe antibiotics during pregnancy to reduce the high risk of infection.

    Trichomonas vaginalis

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic bacterial infection that can cause vaginal discharge. Newborns rarely become infected, but mothers may experience premature delivery. Trichomonas vaginalis can be treated with antibiotics.

    HIV/AIDS

    Advances in modern medicine mean that expectant mothers will not necessarily pass an infection to the infant. HIV treatment can drastically reduce the chances of the baby becoming infected. However, people should be aware that not being treated for another STD can increase risk of HIV infection.

    Protection from sexually transmitted diseases

    In order to reduce complications during and after pregnancy, women should protect against STDs by noticing symptoms and getting regular screenings. Prospective mothers should consult with a healthcare provider about receiving an STD screening to prevent pregnancy complications.

    How to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases During Pregnancy

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections contracted mainly through oral, vaginal or anal sexual contact. But why are they prevalent among sexually-active people? In Nigeria, lack of knowledge is the most probable cause of the prevalence of these diseases. If people were familiar with the sexually transmitted diseases list, they would most likely know how to prevent and treat them well.

    How to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases During Pregnancy

    After extensive research, we have compiled a comprehensive sexually transmitted disease list. This list features many well-known STDs and some you may not have been aware of.

    Sexually transmitted diseases list:

    • Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
    • Chlamydia
    • Bacterial Vaginosis
    • Gonorrhea
    • Genital Herpes
    • HIV/AIDS
    • Trichomoniasis
    • Viral Hepatitis (HBV)
    • Syphilis

    How to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases During Pregnancy

    1. Chlamydia

    Arguably the most prevalent of all STDs, chlamydia is curable through oral and intravenous antibiotics. The disease-causing organism attacks women’s cervixes and men’s penile urethras. Common symptoms include pain during intercourse, as well as vaginal and penile discharges in females and males respectively.

    Most people seem to be asymptomatic, meaning that you can have chlamydia without knowing you do. This explains why it is one of the most transmitted infections of the sexually transmitted diseases list. Abstinence and condoms are the most effective ways to avoid contracting chlamydia.

    How to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases During Pregnancy

    2. Gonorrhea

    Gonorrhea is a bacterial sexually transmitted infection. Carriers of the diseases usually don’t show symptoms. In some cases, gonorrhea will cause painful urination and discharge. This disease can also affect the throat when contracted through oral sex. It can be treated with oral or intravenous antibiotics.

    If symptoms continue, ask your health care provider to check for antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea. Whatever you do, ensure that you treat your current partner to prevent reinfection.

    How to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases During Pregnancy

    3. Genital (and oral) herpes

    Herpes is a viral infection. Although viral diseases are rarely treated via prescription drugs, genital herpes is often treated with antiviral medications, particularly in delicate cases like during pregnancy. Infected pregnant women take daily doses of this antiviral medication to reduce the risk of infecting the fetus.

    There is no cure for herpes. Like HIV/AIDs, herpes can only be managed. The medications available only serve to reduce the severity of the symptoms. Physicians closely monitor women who contract the disease during pregnancy.

    4. Human papillomavirus (HPV)

    Recent reports by the World Health Organization showed that HPV causes cervical cancer. Sadly this incurable viral infection affects only women. Vaccination is the only mode of prevention. Girls and women are advised to go for cervical screenings.

    When the causative genital warts are detected early, a physician can treat them. Human Papillomavirus is one of the most dangerous of all the diseases on the sexually transmitted diseases list.

    5. Syphilis

    Syphilis is another bacterial infection which, when noticed early, can be cured with one intramuscular shot of antibiotic. However, patients are advised to abstain from intercourse until their chancre sores are healed.

    Prolonged syphilis infections require more severe treatment regiments. If left untreated, syphilis can lead to health complications and ultimately, death.

    6. Bacterial vaginosis

    Bacterial vaginosis is often cured with strong antibiotics. Pregnant women who contract this disease are at risk of giving birth to preterm newborns. Their babies are also at risk of having birth defects and dangerously low birth weights.

    7. Trichomoniasis

    Like all bacterial sexually transmitted diseases, trichomoniasis is treated with strong antibiotics. This STI is notorious for reoccurring after treatment and so it is important to treat all current sexual partners. The goal is to prevent reinfection.

    8. Viral hepatitis

    Hepatitis A, B and C are arguably the most dangerous of all the infections on the sexually transmitted diseases list. Hepatitis A, B and C can cause permanent infections and chronic liver diseases. Although new treatments are accessible, patients must take care not to transmit the disease to sexual partners.

    9. HIV/AIDS

    Although no cure has been found for HIV/AIDS, this sexually transmitted disease can be managed. The times have changed and HIV/AIDS is no longer the death sentence it used to be.

    Recent research has produced different combinations of antiretroviral drugs, which can reduce the viral load to barely noticeable proportions. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy effectively represses the virus, boosts the immune system, and minimizes chances of transmission. People living with the virus are advised to take their drugs religiously.

    How to manage STDs

    If detected early, infections on the sexually transmitted diseases list can be managed. Early detection can save the fetus from contracting the infection during pregnancy or delivery. Qualified gynaecologists conduct tests on the women during antenatal care sessions. The goal is to protect the child and treat any STI the woman might have.

    Sexually transmitted diseases, which are usually known as STDs, spread when one has sex with the infected person. However, these diseases are serious and they require treatment no matter whether you are pregnant or not. The risk definitely increases when you are pregnant because most of these would infect your unborn child also.

    Your doctor will take necessary tests to find out whether you are infected with any of the virus or not during your first prenatal visit. But if you have sex with someone infected after that visit you will have to go through more tests. For this, you should be aware of the symptoms of STDs and which of them are curable.

    Symptoms of STDs

    Sometimes there are no symptoms at all, but if there are, they would be

    • Skin rash with pain or without it
    • Sores or warts near the opening of vagina or anus
    • Weight loss
    • Loose stool
    • Night sweats
    • Swelling or redness near vagina
    • Discharge from the vagina
    • Bleeding from vagina apart from that during monthly period
    • Painful urination
    • Aches, fever and chills
    • Severe itching near vagina
    • Discolouring of the skin

    How can STDs affect pregnancy?

    STDs can be really harmful not only for you, but for your developing baby also.

    HIV/AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)

    This is one of the non-curable STDs, but science has developed to prevent it from getting transmitted to the unborn. It is almost preventable, but if it gets passed on to the baby, results would be disastrous.

    This disease can damage the liver of the mother to any extent and if the child is not treated within an hour of birth, he will be the carrier of Hepatitis B for life. There is no cure for this disease but it can be prevented by vaccination.

    Women infected with this disease carry risks of preterm delivery and miscarriage. If the newborn gets exposed, it might have severe eye infection. However, it can be treated to prevent it from affecting the developing child.

    Herpes is a disease which is not highly infectious until the time of delivery. This is the reason why most women with herpes have cesarean section to prevent the disease from getting transmitted to the child. Herpes are not curable, but they can be treated to save the child from getting infected.

    This is one of the most common STDs and an infected pregnant woman is more likely to deliver the child prematurely or goes through the risks of miscarriage . If the child is born infected, it can develop blindness, joint infection or blood infection that could be life threatening.

    This is an infection that may cause pain during sex or when urinating. It contains risks of premature birth or low birth weight . It can be cured if diagnosed on time.

    Syphilis carries the risk of miscarriage for the mother and stillbirth and mental and physical problems in the newborn, if infected. However, there are antibiotics that can be given to prevent the baby from getting infected.

    If you suspect any of the symptoms especially when you are pregnant, it is advisable to consult your doctor for that. Immediate treatment is the only and best way to protect you and your baby.


    What are the symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases? How can sexually transmitted diseases prove risky for pregnant women? How to prevent sexually transmitted diseases during pregnancy? Discuss here.

    Note: The Pregistry website includes expert reports on more than 2000 medications, 300 diseases, and 150 common exposures during pregnancy and lactation. For the topic Syphilis, go here. For the topic Genital Herpes, go here. For the topic HIV, go here. For the topic Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), go here. For the topic Chlamydial Infection, go here. These expert reports are free of charge and can be saved and shared.

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that do not discriminate. Women who are pregnant can become infected with the same STDs as women who are not pregnant. And, an often overlooked issue is that, when you are pregnant, having an STD can be harmful to your baby.

    Many STDs are ‘silent,’ or have no symptoms, so you may not know that you are infected.

    If you are pregnant, you should be tested for STDs, including HIV (the virus that causes AIDS), as a part of your medical care during pregnancy.

    The results of an STD can be more serious, even life-threatening, for you and your baby if you become infected while pregnant. It is important that you are aware of the harmful effects of STDs and how to protect yourself and your unborn baby against infection.

    The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention confirm that STDs can complicate your pregnancy and may have serious effects on both you and your developing baby. Some of these problems may be seen at birth; others may not be discovered until months or years later.

    In addition, it is well known that infection with an STD can make it easier for a person to get infected with HIV. Most of these problems can be prevented if you receive regular medical care during pregnancy. This includes tests for STDs starting early in pregnancy and repeated close to delivery, as needed.

    STDs during pregnancy can cause complications:

    1. HIV. Pregnant women can pass HIV to their babies during pregnancy, labor, and vaginal delivery, or breast-feeding. However, if HIV is diagnosed before or early in pregnancy, steps can be taken to reduce the risk of transmission.
    2. Hepatitis B. The greatest risk of transmission occurs when pregnant women become infected close to delivery. Transmission can be prevented if at-risk infants are treated shortly after birth.
    3. Chlamydia. Chlamydia during pregnancy has been linked to preterm labor, premature rupture of the membranes and low birth weight. Chlamydia can be passed from women to their babies during vaginal delivery. If diagnosed during pregnancy, chlamydia can be successfully treated with an antibiotic.
    4. Syphilis. Syphilis during pregnancy has been linked to premature birth, stillbirth and, in some cases, death after birth. Untreated infants have a high risk of complications involving multiple organs.
    5. Gonorrhea. Untreated gonorrhea during pregnancy has been linked to premature birth, premature rupture of the membranes and low birth weight. Gonorrhea can be passed to the baby during vaginal delivery.
    6. Hepatitis C. Some research suggests that hepatitis C during pregnancy increases the risk of premature birth, small size for gestational age and low birth weight. This type of liver infection can be passed to the baby during pregnancy.

    STDs such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis can be treated and cured with antibiotics during pregnancy. STDs caused by viruses, such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV, can’t be cured. In some cases, antiviral medications can be used to help reduce the risk of transmitting a viral infection to your baby. If you have HIV, you might need to deliver by C-section.

    Ultimately, the most important thing to remember is to get tested for STDs before and after getting pregnant. Your gynecological health is directly correlated to your baby’s health and the ability for you to have a smooth labor.

    Sexually transmitted diseases are surprisingly not so rare during pregnancy. An alarming statistic is that, in America alone, every year, you will find two million pregnant women who have to deal with sexually transmitted diseases. For instance, evidence shows that cervical cancer is sexually transmitted and can be contracted during pregnancy.

    However, not all those who develop this particular cancer have a history of any sexually transmitted infection. The complications arising from sexually transmitted infections.

    .in the case of pregnancy can have devastating consequences for womene This is why a woman’s sexual health is of the utmost importance, especially if she is trying to get pregnantn

    Symptoms of Sexually Transmitted diseases during pregnancy

    Take HIV, for examplel We have all had it drilled into our heads that HIV is sexually transmittede This can be critical at the time of pregnancy as such an infection has been known to pass from the pregnant woman to her unborn childl The concern for this dreaded disease is globala In the early stages, this virus manifests symptoms which resemble those of the flul The problem is that, because of the lack of or the deceptive symptoms, the woman might not know that she has already contracted HIVI There is a chance that the baby too might develop this virusu If you suspect that you have it, stay away from breastfeedingn There are chances that you could pass on HIV in that mannere

    Causes of Sexually Transmitted diseases when pregnant

    Sexually transmitted genital warts can be a cause for concern, especially during pregnancy, when you want to be in the best of healtht

    HPV is sexually transmitted and is what causes these wartst This is the human papillomavirus, which is also connected with cervical as well as genital cancersr For a woman, cervical cancer, as mentioned earlier, is yet another concernr Thus the importance of monogamous relationships and safe sex cannot be stressed enoughg This becomes doubly important if you have or want to have a childl

    Treatment for Sexually Transmitted diseases in Pregnancy

    Bacterial vaginosis is sexually transmitted and can affect pregnant womene However, such bacterial infections are easier to treat, with the help of antibioticsc Other sexually transmitted infections can prove much harder to treat or curer In some cases, there is literally nothing that can be done for the mother or childl When pregnant, it is best to be open with your doctor about any previous or current sexually transmitted infectionsn This is imperative to ensure your health and the health of the child you carryr

    You are not alone if you are a woman who is pregnant and has a sexually transmitted disease.

    Thousands of cases are reported everyday in the United States. Pregnancy should be a wonderful experience in your life. An STD can complicate your pregnancy.

    Your physician will base treatment on what kind of disease you have and how long you have had it. Sometimes a venereal disease will affect your unborn baby.

    In most cases though, your baby will be just fine. Your physician will know the best course of action to take to fight these horrible diseases.How to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases During Pregnancy

    Early Detection

    If you are pregnant, then testing for a venereal disease on your first visit to your physician is something that you should do. If your physician does not normally test for these diseases then you should request a test. It is a good thing to have a venereal disease diagnosed as soon as possible.

    Early detection is the key to a more healthy pregnancy. Your physician will be able to prevent complications in your pregnancy for you and your baby with an early detection.

    Silent Disease

    Chlamydia infection remains silent in your body. You may never know that you have the disease if you are not tested. Infections of Chlamydia are common and it is the most reported venereal disease. This disease can cause complications if not treated.

    Chlamydia can cause damage to your fallopian tubes and your uterus. There is a chance that you could pass it on to your unborn child. It can cause you to have your baby too early. This disease can affect your baby’s eyes and breathing.

    The good news is that Chlamydia is easy to treat if caught early. A prescription of antibiotics by your physician, such as azithromycin, will clear it up.

    Gonorrhea

    Gonorrhea is a venereal disease that if left untreated will affect your cervix, uterus, and your fallopian tubes. Your mouth and throat could show signs of the disease. The disease can show up in your eyes and there are cases where it has been located inside a women’s anus.

    This sexually transmitted disease could pass on to your baby during birth. It can cause blindness, joint and blood infections in your baby. Even though this disease could have awful complications, it is easy to treat.

    Different antibiotics will be able to treat this type of venereal disease. If you take all of your antibiotics when you are supposed to, then they will cure your gonorrhea.

    Treating Syphilis

    When you have Syphilis, you may not know it because the symptoms of Syphilis can be the same as with other diseases. [stages of syphilis]

    If you have Syphilis then you contracted it from someone who has Syphilis sores. These sores are what pass this disease from person to person.

    It is a sad fact that you can pass this on to your unborn child. Early detection is very crucial with this type of venereal disease. If you have had Syphilis for not quite a year then one injection of Penicillin will cure this disease.

    Some sexually transmitted diseases are easily treated. Modern medicine is a wonderful thing and it will make your life easier if you are pregnant with a STD.

    Sexually transmitted diseases as the name suggests, are transmitted through sexual contact. In sub-Saharan Africa, Statistics show that sexually transmitted diseases are among the main reasons why most people seek medical care.

    However, this statistics largely refer to men, and reveals that women in these regions are slow to seek medical attention in regard to sexual diseases.

    This puts these children and many in other African regions at risk because there is an incredible number of sexually transmitted infections that can be transmitted through a mother during pregnancy or, during childbirth.

    Among these infections include HIV, gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes, Chlamydia, hepatitis B, and HPV.

    Reports from centers for disease and control, CDC reveal risk factors that are predominant in Africa and predispose infants to maternal sexually transmitted infections; this includes the relationship status of the mother and her sex partner, including his fidelity to her as a sex partner and the consistency of the relationship.

    Poverty, homelessness and her inability to access timely STD screening and treatment services has also been reported to increase her risk of STI infections

    Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Babies in Africa

    Evidence shows that of the listed STI’s that are transmitted to babies in Africa, HIV is given quite an emphasis due to the numerous debilitating effects that come with the disease, not to mention the stigma, high probability of death, and suffering to both mother and child. These efforts have seen a tremendous decline in mother to child transmission from 30% to 1%.

    However, although syphilis is known to have equally severe consequences on pregnancies and newborns in these regions, it has not received an equal measure of mobilization towards eradication. The prevalence of syphilis infection among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa is estimated to be 2.7%, which represents nearly 1 million pregnancies to be at risk annually.

    More than 50% of children born with congenital syphilis in Africa are initially asymptomatic, making a prenatal diagnosis of maternal infection vital to improving mother-child pregnancy outcomes.

    Gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, or Trichomonas vaginalis in pregnant women can be as high as 25% of sexual infections among newborns in Africa.

    Globally neonatal herpes maternal transmissions although rare, accounts are estimated to be 14,000 annually, with majority of this numbers originating from Africa.

    Effect of the STI Diseases on Babies in Africa

    Mother to child transmissions during pregnancy and childbirth in Africa can result in neonatal deaths, stillbirth, sepsis, conjunctivitis, congenital deformities, low birth weight, and premature newborns.

    Extreme effects of STIs may include blindness, physical disability, mental retardation, and even death.

    Treatment

    Viral STI’s are not treatable; however, all the bacterial infection causing STIs are curable, including syphilis. However, adverse effects of syphilis in Africa in both the mother and child are preventable.

    In Tanzania, this was done with effective screening and then treating with a single intramuscular dose of benzathine penicillin.

    Conclusion – STI’s Among Babies In Africa

    Sexually transmitted diseases among babies remains a serious threat, however, treatment is available for most of the curable infections when presented timely in hospitals.

    HIV screening for pregnant women in Africa to prevent maternal infection is effective and is duly carried out among women attending antenatal care.

    Although it has received challenges in some resource-poor settings, screening of syphilis among pregnant women attending antenatal care is also done routinely in this region.

    Pregnancy brings in many new and exciting experiences for women. However, sometimes, there can be chances that these are not always a happy deal for a lady.

    Suffering from diseases that can affect your child is a serious problem that will make the condition difficult to deal with. Having sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is one among this.

    It is important to know more about STDs and the health risks that they possess during pregnancy. Along with that, be aware of the different ways how you can manage and treat the condition.

    These are important for preventing and managing STDs during pregnancy.

    No matter how educated the society is, still many women are not aware of the real facts about STDs.

    While some believe that this will happen only to those who lead a wrong lifestyle, some others think that this is not treatable at all.

    This makes it more important to create awareness about the real facts of STDs.

    Protecting yourself and your baby from STDs is thus very important.

    In this article on STDs during pregnancy, we will discuss more about the issues and facts related to STDs. Have a look:

    How to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases During Pregnancy

    How You Can Get STDs?

    STDs affect pregnant women either before getting pregnant or during pregnancy. This can occur if you’ve had more than one partner before pregnancy or if your partner has had a physical relationship with other women. Another chance is blood transfusion.

    How to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases During Pregnancy

    What Are The Common STDs?

    The most common STDs that you should consider during pregnancy are AIDS, hepatitis B, chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhoea and hepatitis C. Most of these are included in the prenatal serology checkup as a routine for pregnant women.

    How to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases During Pregnancy

    Should You Test For STDs?

    Sure, you have to test for STDs, even if you have done this before in your life. This is because STDs usually don’t have any symptoms to present in the early stages.

    So, to be on the safer side, discuss about this to your doctor, especially if you had any high-risk sexual relationship in the past.

    How to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases During Pregnancy

    How STDs Affect Your Baby?

    The risk for your baby depends on the type and seriousness of the STD. While some of these are mild, some others can be life threatening. Most of the virus and bacteria that cause STD can pass through the placenta. These are the effects of STDs during pregnancy.

    How to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases During Pregnancy

    What Are The Risks To The Baby?

    The common effects of STDs on pregnancy are low birth weight, still birth, miscarriage, premature delivery and breakage of the membrane.

    Serious cases will transmit the disease as such to the baby, which may lead to the death of the foetus or possess a lifelong risk. These are the effects of STDs during pregnancy.

    How to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases During Pregnancy

    How To Treat STDs?

    Some STDs that are caused by bacteria can be treated with antibiotics. This is successful for infections caused by chlamydia and gonorrhoea. STDs caused by viruses have limited or no treatment options during pregnancy. In such cases, anti-viral drugs are given to women to reduce the risk of the viral transmission to the baby.

    How to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases During Pregnancy

    How To Prevent STDs?

    The main ways to prevent STDs are abstaining from sex with more than one partner, using preventive measures like condoms, getting yourself and your partner tested for STDs, getting blood transfusion from reputed and advanced blood banks, etc.

    If you’ve contracted an STD in your past, you may be wondering if – and how – it will affect your pregnancy. Read on to find out. By Lisa Witepski

    How to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases During Pregnancy

    STDs can have an impact on your developing baby, which makes it all the more important to recognise and treat symptoms as soon as possible.

    Here’s what you need to know:

    Get tested

    Many STDs can lie dormant – and, even if you’ve been married or monogamous for a long time, you may have been infected years ago. That’s why the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the US recommend that all pregnant women should be tested for hepatitis B, HIV, chlamydia and syphilis. This is especially important if you have a new partner.

    Testing for diseases include vaginal swabs or blood tests.

    Symptoms of STDs

    Symptoms of STDs may include:

    • A rash
    • Swelling or redness around the anus and genitals
    • Painful or burning sensation when urinating
    • Painful sex
    • Genital itching and a discharge.

    Will an STD affect my baby?

    STDs may affect your baby in a number of ways. For example:

    • Herpes may be passed on to the baby during labour.
    • Gonorrhoea brings an increased risk of miscarriage and, if the baby is born during a period of active infection, it may cause blindness, joint infection or a life-threatening blood infection. Gonorrhoea will also cause significant discomfort if you contract it during pregnancy. Look out for symptoms like abdominal pain, painful urination and discharge.
    • With genital warts, pregnancy hormones may cause the warts to grow, sometimes to the point where they block the birth canal.
    • Chlamydia carries a risk of premature birth or miscarriage, and may cause pneumonia or eye infections in newborns.
    • A woman with hepatitis B has a 40% chance of transmitting the disease to her baby.

    Will I be able to have a vaginal birth I have a STD?

    You may be advised to have a C-section if you have an STD, as this lessens the chance of your child contracting the disease as it passes through an infected birth canal.

    Can I breastfeed if I have an STD?

    It is best not to breastfeed if you have an STD, as you may pass the disease on to your child through your breast milk.

    How do you treat an STD?

    • Treatment of the STD depends on the disease itself. For example, viruses like HIV can’t be cured, but support medication may help to manage the condition.
    • In other cases (like gonorrhoea, syphilis and chlamydia), an antibiotic may be prescribed.
    • If you’re suffering from herpes, you may be treated with anti-viral medication to control the lesions.
    • If you have genital warts, treatment may be deferred until you’ve delivered your baby.

    Can STDs be prevented?

    You can reduce your risk of contracting an STD by wearing condoms (you can still get certain STDs, like herpes, from skin-to-skin contact, even when using a condom). Abstain from sex with anyone who is infected or displays symptoms, such as a genital rash. If you and/or your partner are unsure if you may be infected, as many STDs don’t display symptoms, get tested before having sex.

    Research output : Contribution to journal › Article

    Abstract

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are not rare during pregnancy; however, they are usually asymptomatic and may be unrecognized. STDs in pregnancy can cause serious complications to both pregnant women and fetuses. Screening tests are recommended, because the treatment of these diseases can be curative in most cases, or at least effective in reducing complications. In this point of view, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends screening of all pregnant women for several STDs including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hepatitis B, and syphilis, and screening selectively in high risk women for gonorrhea and hepatitis C. To reduce vertical transmissions, highly active antiretroviral therapy and timed Cesarean delivery is recommended in HIV-infected pregnant women. Penicillin is still a drug of choice for syphilis in pregnancy. In women who have active genital herpetic lesions at the time of labor, Cesarean delivery is indicated to protect neonates from perinatal transmissions. However, in women who have genital warts with human papilloma virus infection, Cesarean delivery is not recommended to prevent neonatal laryngeal papillomatosis. In women infected with gonorrhea, Chlamydia or Trichomonas, tests for HIV infection are recommended because of high prevalence of concomitant infections.

    Original language English
    Pages (from-to) 897-904
    Number of pages 8
    Journal Journal of the Korean Medical Association
    Volume 51
    Issue number 10
    DOIs
    • https://doi.org/10.5124/jkma.2008.51.10.897
    State Published – 1 Oct 2008

    Keywords

    • Management
    • Pregnancy
    • Screening test
    • Sexually transmitted disease

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    Research output : Contribution to journal › Article

    T1 – Management of sexually transmitted diseases during pregnancy

    AU – Park, Joong Shin

    N2 – Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are not rare during pregnancy; however, they are usually asymptomatic and may be unrecognized. STDs in pregnancy can cause serious complications to both pregnant women and fetuses. Screening tests are recommended, because the treatment of these diseases can be curative in most cases, or at least effective in reducing complications. In this point of view, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends screening of all pregnant women for several STDs including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hepatitis B, and syphilis, and screening selectively in high risk women for gonorrhea and hepatitis C. To reduce vertical transmissions, highly active antiretroviral therapy and timed Cesarean delivery is recommended in HIV-infected pregnant women. Penicillin is still a drug of choice for syphilis in pregnancy. In women who have active genital herpetic lesions at the time of labor, Cesarean delivery is indicated to protect neonates from perinatal transmissions. However, in women who have genital warts with human papilloma virus infection, Cesarean delivery is not recommended to prevent neonatal laryngeal papillomatosis. In women infected with gonorrhea, Chlamydia or Trichomonas, tests for HIV infection are recommended because of high prevalence of concomitant infections.

    AB – Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are not rare during pregnancy; however, they are usually asymptomatic and may be unrecognized. STDs in pregnancy can cause serious complications to both pregnant women and fetuses. Screening tests are recommended, because the treatment of these diseases can be curative in most cases, or at least effective in reducing complications. In this point of view, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends screening of all pregnant women for several STDs including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hepatitis B, and syphilis, and screening selectively in high risk women for gonorrhea and hepatitis C. To reduce vertical transmissions, highly active antiretroviral therapy and timed Cesarean delivery is recommended in HIV-infected pregnant women. Penicillin is still a drug of choice for syphilis in pregnancy. In women who have active genital herpetic lesions at the time of labor, Cesarean delivery is indicated to protect neonates from perinatal transmissions. However, in women who have genital warts with human papilloma virus infection, Cesarean delivery is not recommended to prevent neonatal laryngeal papillomatosis. In women infected with gonorrhea, Chlamydia or Trichomonas, tests for HIV infection are recommended because of high prevalence of concomitant infections.

    1174 words (5 pages) Nursing Essay

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    Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of NursingAnswers.net.

    Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Syphilis

    Syphilis is a sexually transmitted bacterial infection by having sexual intercourses with an infected person. It is caused by a spirochete bacterium called Treponema Pallidum. It can be transmitted through blood transfusions, as well as throughout pregnancy. Another way it can be transmitted is through skin contact especially if there are any breaks in the skin or on the mucous membranes. A person who is not affected can then become infected because of the infection that they just encounter. If this disease is left untreated, syphilis can escalate to sequential stages. The sequential stages of syphilis are primary, secondary, and tertiary. To even further complications in the body that affect the cardiovascular and neurological system as well as causing blindness. If syphilis is catch early, it can be treatable and curable.

    The primary stage is caused by a nonpainful chancre usually consist of one or more lesions. If pregnant then the site of infection will be intravaginally caused by sexual intercourse. Congenital transmission can affect both perinatal and neonatal care. If mother doesn’t take care of the fetus then it will cause neurological and musculoskeletal impairments as well as fetal death. According to Advances in Neonatal Care (2018) states, that most maternal and CS infections were noticed in the Western and Southern States. With a shockingly 42.3% increase in cases of CS (2012-2016) in the West.

    However, If the person doesn’t take care of the chancre in the primary stage then it can progress to a secondary stage. In this stage the chancre would develop to a maculopapular rash that will appear on different locations of the body. The body locations are seen in the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, sores in genitals, anus, or mouth. Followed by clinical manifestations for having the maculopapular rash such as fever, malaise, lymphadenopathy, and myalgia. Moving on to the Tertiary stage, the infection will remain dormant for a while with no signs of symptoms. This means the infection can be life threading and lead to multiorgan failure and damage. These life threading comorbidities would be tumors of the skin, bones, and in the liver. According to Advances in Neonatal care (2018) states if appear in the liver this can be lesions caused by an inflammatory response to the treponemes. More Complications in the tertiary are neurological which include meningovascular and parenchymatous damage and neurosyphilis. As signs and symptoms are described as irritation, insomnia, memory loss, as well personality changes. Tertiary stage also affects the cardiovascular system to having aortic aneurysm with aortic regurgitation (Rowe, Newberry & Jnah, 2018, p 440).

    Additionally, as mentioned earlier this disease is primarily transmitted through sexual intercourse. Other ways that this can be transmitted is by having multiple sex partners, oral sex, anonymous sex, victim of an abusive relationship, and HIV infection (Caple & Karakashian 2018, p 2). According to the Journal for Nurse Practitioners (2015), Gay men, bisexual men, or heterosexuals (MSM) are categorized to be in the highest risk for having a syphilis infection (Elsevier, 2015, p 49). People in the ages of twenty through twenty-nine rank as the highest to have primary and secondary syphilis (Caple & Karakashian, 2018, p 1). People who have syphilis come from low socioeconomic status, practice unsafe sex, lack treatment during pregnancy, and are uninsured to medical care. Some individuals may not be educated on sexual transmitted diseases and don’t understand how critical it is to wear protection barriers during intercourse. Another issue is lack of insurance to prevent people from seeking or getting treatment.

    Furthermore, laboratory findings used as a diagnosis for syphilis are visualization of Treponema Pallidum and a serological test. For the visualization of Treponema Pallidum, a dark-field microscopy is used to detect the disease. As for the serological test Treponema Pallidum antibodies include the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorbed (FTA-ABS) test. The Treponema Pallidum drop of agglutination(TPPA) test is based on serology results being negative with patients with tertiary syphilis (Caple & Karakashian, 2018, p 3). Some alert indications can be detected if a patient has a reaction to Penicillin to cause Jarisch-Herxheimer. Since penicillin is used to treat all the stages of syphilis. Jarisch-Herxheimer causes an acute febrile reaction with symptoms such as chills, myalgia, tachycardia, headache, increased respiratory rate, and hypertension within 24 hours of treatment (Caple & Karakashian, 2018, p 3). This is more common in patients in primary and secondary stages of syphilis.

    When treating syphilis patients, one must monitor vital signs, assess all physiological systems, and review laboratory results to identify any changes. If changes due occur notify the physician as well as following the prescribed treatment as indicated. If a person is in primary, secondary, and early tertiary a single of dose of antibiotics can be used to treat the patient (Caple & Karakashian, 2018). If the patient is in tertiary stage, then an increase of antibiotics is given to three weekly doses. However, if a patient is allergic to penicillin, then alteration of medications is given such as doxycycline or tetracycline.

    The nurse’s role is to provide emotional support and educate patients on how to practice safe sex. As well as providing screenings for syphilis with patients who start having sexual intercourses and those with multiple partners. With early detections and screenings preventions can then be measured to help if infected. As nurses it is one jobs to educate the patients on getting annual check-ups, getting screenings, and vaccinations. This disease is critical and harmful as mention earlier and if infected with syphilis one must take full action to take care of oneself.

    Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Retrieved from:

    Caple, C. L., & Karakashian, A. L. (2018). Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 45, 1–4. doi: 10.1097/01.olq.0000544647.98472.4

    Syphilis on the Rise: Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention

    Retrieved from:

    Klein, J., Mclaud, M., & Rogers, D. (2015). Syphilis on the Rise: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 11(1), 49–55. doi: 10.1016/j.nurpra.2014.10.020

    Special series: Congenital Infections

    Retrieved from:

    Rowe, C. R., Newberry, D. M., & Jnah, A. J. (2018). Congenital Syphilis. Advances in Neonatal Care, 18(6), 438–445. doi: 10.1097/anc.0000000000000563

    If you’ve contracted an STD in your past, you may be wondering if – and how – it will affect your pregnancy. Read on to find out. By Lisa Witepski

    How to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases During Pregnancy

    STDs can have an impact on your developing baby, which makes it all the more important to recognise and treat symptoms as soon as possible.

    Here’s what you need to know:

    Get tested

    Many STDs can lie dormant – and, even if you’ve been married or monogamous for a long time, you may have been infected years ago. That’s why the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the US recommend that all pregnant women should be tested for hepatitis B, HIV, chlamydia and syphilis. This is especially important if you have a new partner.

    Testing for diseases include vaginal swabs or blood tests.

    Symptoms of STDs

    Symptoms of STDs may include:

    • A rash
    • Swelling or redness around the anus and genitals
    • Painful or burning sensation when urinating
    • Painful sex
    • Genital itching and a discharge.

    Will an STD affect my baby?

    STDs may affect your baby in a number of ways. For example:

    • Herpes may be passed on to the baby during labour.
    • Gonorrhoea brings an increased risk of miscarriage and, if the baby is born during a period of active infection, it may cause blindness, joint infection or a life-threatening blood infection. Gonorrhoea will also cause significant discomfort if you contract it during pregnancy. Look out for symptoms like abdominal pain, painful urination and discharge.
    • With genital warts, pregnancy hormones may cause the warts to grow, sometimes to the point where they block the birth canal.
    • Chlamydia carries a risk of premature birth or miscarriage, and may cause pneumonia or eye infections in newborns.
    • A woman with hepatitis B has a 40% chance of transmitting the disease to her baby.

    Will I be able to have a vaginal birth I have a STD?

    You may be advised to have a C-section if you have an STD, as this lessens the chance of your child contracting the disease as it passes through an infected birth canal.

    Can I breastfeed if I have an STD?

    It is best not to breastfeed if you have an STD, as you may pass the disease on to your child through your breast milk.

    How do you treat an STD?

    • Treatment of the STD depends on the disease itself. For example, viruses like HIV can’t be cured, but support medication may help to manage the condition.
    • In other cases (like gonorrhoea, syphilis and chlamydia), an antibiotic may be prescribed.
    • If you’re suffering from herpes, you may be treated with anti-viral medication to control the lesions.
    • If you have genital warts, treatment may be deferred until you’ve delivered your baby.

    Can STDs be prevented?

    You can reduce your risk of contracting an STD by wearing condoms (you can still get certain STDs, like herpes, from skin-to-skin contact, even when using a condom). Abstain from sex with anyone who is infected or displays symptoms, such as a genital rash. If you and/or your partner are unsure if you may be infected, as many STDs don’t display symptoms, get tested before having sex.

    How to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases During Pregnancy

    How to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases During Pregnancy

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are common in the U.S. Being pregnant doesn’t protect you from getting an STD. In fact, because some STDs may have minor symptoms or none at all, it is not unusual to find out that you have an STD while pregnant, simply because you are more likely to be tested. Testing for STDs is a standard part of prenatal care and happens at the very first visit.

    Some STDs can negatively impact your pregnancy or the baby if left untreated. For example, they can lead to problems like ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage, preterm labor, or even passing the disease to your baby. The risks to you and your baby depend on which STD you have contracted.

    Here are some of the most common STDs and how they may affect pregnancy.

    Chlamydia

    Chlamydia is a bacteria that you get from having sex with an infected person. It is the most common STD, and symptoms include a yellow discharge, painful urination, and breakthrough bleeding. The good news is that antibiotics taken orally can cure you of chlamydia. Untreated chlamydia in pregnancy has been linked to miscarriage.

    Gonorrhea

    Gonorrhea is the second most common STD and is frequently found with chlamydia. Like chlamydia, it also has symptoms that include a yellow discharge, frequent or painful urination, and breakthrough bleeding. This disease can be cured with a treatment of two types of antibiotics. Without treatment, gonorrhea has been implicated in preterm labor, a baby who is small for gestational age, and stillbirth.

    Trichomoniasis

    This STD is a parasite transmitted from an infected partner. It can cause your baby to be born too early or to be born with low birth weight. If you have trichomoniasis, you may experience pain, itching, burning, or a discharge, but many people have no symptoms. A simple medication can clear up this STD, but it can come back if you and your partner are not careful during treatment.

    Herpes

    One in six adults in the U.S. is said to have herpes. Some people with this STD have no symptoms or mild symptoms, but it also may result in outbreaks of sores at the site of infection. There is a risk that you will pass the virus to your baby if you have untreated herpes during pregnancy. You may be treated with antivirals to lower this risk, but you may also need a cesarean section to deliver your baby safely. There is no cure for herpes, but it can be managed.

    Hepatitis B

    Hepatitis B is a virus that is passed during contact with infected body fluids like semen and blood. There is no cure for hepatitis B, and it can be passed to your baby during birth. However, it should not affect your chances of vaginal delivery, and breastfeeding is still an option. You should talk to your doctor about the hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin during pregnancy to prevent infection.

    Syphilis

    Syphilis is caused by a bacteria transmitted during sexual contact with an infected person. It can appear as a painless sore, or a rash, depending on how long you have had the disease. There is antibiotic treatment, but you may need a longer course if you have had the disease for a long while. Syphilis is one of the most dangerous diseases in pregnancy. It is diagnosed with a blood test. Left untreated, you can pass this on to your baby and cause birth defects, miscarriage, and other complications.

    HIV is a serious disease that women may have and not known until they become pregnant and are routinely tested. It is transmitted through infected bodily fluids like semen and can be passed on to your baby. This transmission rate is drastically reduced if you take medication in pregnancy, give birth with a cesarean delivery, do not breastfeed, and give your baby medication after birth. This is the best way to prevent transmitting the virus to your baby.

    Pelvic inflammatory disease

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is not an STD itself, but it is caused when bacteria, usually from an untreated chlamydia and/or gonorrhea infection, moves into the fallopian tubes. It is diagnosed more than 1 million times a year. PID can lead to scarring in the tubes and other female organs, which can lead to infertility and an increase in ectopic pregnancy risk. Diagnosis and treatment of STDs, in general, can help prevent PID.

    Bacterial vaginosis

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is not necessarily an STD, but it typically occurs in women who are sexually active. Your vagina normally contains bacteria that are not harmful. But when there is an unbalance of certain types of bacteria, it can cause bacterial vaginosis (BV). Symptoms of BV include a discharge and/or fishy odor. Some of the risk factors for BV include douching or having a new sexual partner or multiple partners. Because BV can cause preterm labor if you have symptoms, you should be treated in pregnancy. If you don’t have symptoms, treatment may or may not help, this is something to talk to your practitioner about during your visits.

    Bottom line

    It can be frightening to find out that you have an STD at any point, but particularly if you are pregnant. But talking to your doctor or midwife can help you get the treatment you need to can help prevent complications for you and your baby, both during and after pregnancy. Don’t be afraid to speak up and get help.

    STDs and Infections are typically transmitted during sexual contact through bodily fluid such as blood-to-blood, semen or vaginally. They can also be transmitted non-sexually, such as from mother to infant, also called vertical transmission, during pregnancy or childbirth. Oftentimes, the STD or infection shows no symptoms, therefore making it a possibility to contract a disease or infection from someone who appears perfectly healthy. The list below contains a summary of some of the more common STDs and Infections. If you are concerned that you may have an STD or Infection or if you have any questions related to your physical health, schedule an appointment to find out the best steps to take to resolve your concerns.

    Genital Herpes:

    Genital Herpes, medically known as herpes simplex virus (HSV), can be sexually contracted and can often lie dormant in the system for months before showing any signs or symptoms.

    • Symptoms: Typically include sores, pain and itching in the genital area. Even if a person does not show any visible signs of genital herpes, they can transmit the virus to someone else.
    • Treatment: Although there is no cure for genital herpes, medications can drastically ease symptoms and reduce the risk of infecting others.

    Genital Warts:

    Like warts that appear anywhere on the body, Genital Warts are caused by the benign (non-cancerous) forms of human papillomavirus (HPV), and are one of the most common types of sexually transmitted infections.

    • Symptoms: Genital warts are typically small bumps that may develop into larger clusters and often cause itching or discomfort in the genital area. In some cases, they may not be seen by the naked eye.
    • Treatment: If you are not experiencing discomfort from your symptoms, you may not need treatment. However, if you are experiencing pain or are distressed by having visible symptoms, see a physician to see how you may minimize your symptoms and clear outbreaks. There are available vaccines to prevent contracting HPV.

    Human papillomavirus (HPV):

    Along with genital warts, HPV may cause cervical cancer. There are over 40 strains of HPV, most of which do not cause cancer.

    • Symptoms: In cases where high risk HPV may lead to cervical cancer there are often no symptoms which is why it is important to get annual Pap smears.
    • Prevention: There are available vaccines to prevent contracting HPV.

    Chlamydia:

    Chlamydia is a bacterial infection caused by Chlamydia Trachomatis.

    • Symptoms: Vaginal discharge, pain during intercourse, and lower abdominal pain. If symptoms occur they may appear 1-3 weeks after exposure or there may be no symptoms.
    • Treatment: Chlamydia is treated with antibiotics. In most cases, the infection is resolved in 1 to 2 weeks. During this time, you should abstain from sex. It is important that your partner also be treated as they may not be showing any signs or symptoms and you may continue to contract the disease between each other.

    Gonorrhea:

    Gonorrhea is a bacterium. In women, gonorrhea most often affects the urethra, rectum, throat and cervix. Babies may also contract gonorrhea during childbirth if their mothers are infected.

    • Symptoms: Symptoms are similar to chlamydia; vaginal discharge, pain during intercourse and lower abdominal pain.
    • Treatment: Treatment is through antibiotics. During this time you should abstain from sex. It is important that your partner receive treatment as well.

    Syphilis:

    Syphilis is usually spread via sexual contact caused by Treponema Pallidium. There are different levels of Syphilis. At its highest grade, your body is neurologically infected and it becomes very difficult to treat.

    • Symptoms: Syphilis often begins as a painless sore, typically on the genitals, rectum or mouth and then may lie dormant in your system for many years.
    • Treatment: In early stages, Syphilis can most often be treated by receiving injections In its later stages, Syphilis becomes increasingly difficult to treat and may severely damage your heart, brain or other organs.

    Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID):

    PID is an infection of any combination of the endometrium, fallopian tubes, ovaries or uterus and can affect your fertility, cause ectopic pregnancy or chronic pelvic pain. It is caused by the spread of infections via the cervix and is often associated with sexually transmitted infections. If you are experiencing minimal or subtle signs, it is important to visit your gynecologist as it may help reduce the incidence of long-term complications.

    • Symptoms: The most common symptom is pain in the pelvis while some experience vaginal discharge, abnormal bleeding, fever and chills and nausea.
    • Treatment: There are several different regimes to treat PID based on the criteria of the patient. Treatment ranges from oral medication to hospitalization with IV antibiotics. In some instances, patient will require surgery.

    Endometritis:

    Endometritis is inflammation in the endometrium, the lining of the uterus, caused by chlamydia, gonorrhea, tuberculosis or mixtures of bacterium in the vagina. It is more like to occur after childbirth or after an operation that enters the cervix. If left untreated, Endometritis can lead to more serious infection and complications with pelvic organs, fertility and overall health.

    • Symptoms: High fever, lower abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding or discharge.
    • Treatment: Endometritis is usually treated with antibiotics. Partners may need to be treated if the condition is caused by a sexually transmitted disease. With treatment, Endometritis should go away.
    • HIV: HIV has no gynecological symptoms until advanced stages. There is no cure for HIV but through medication, its progress can be drastically slowed.
    • Hepatitis B: Hepatitis B has no gynecological symptoms, even in advanced stages. It is a serious liver infection that can be extremely harmful to overall health if not treated. Although it is not curable, through medication most signs and symptoms can be drastically reduced. There is a vaccination that can be taken to prevent contracting the disease.
    • Hepatitis C: Hepatitis C has no gynecological symptoms, even in advanced stages, and can very often go undetected unless/until the infection has severely infected the liver. With medical treatment, some cases may be controlled. Awareness to the above STDs is the key to prevention, as once contracted, they will stay with you for the rest of your life, negatively affecting your long-term health. Be sure to practice safe sex and to avoid carelessness in terms of selecting your sexual partners.

    Book an appointment at Fakih IVF today to discuss your sexual health with your physician.

    Health Centers > Pregnancy Health Center > Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    How to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases During Pregnancy

    Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Think you’re protected from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)? If you’re pregnant or thinking about becoming pregnant, you should know all the facts about STDs – for example, pregnancy doesn’t protect you from getting an STD. In fact, the consequences of an STD are even more serious if you become infected during pregnancy. Take steps to protect yourself and your baby now by reading the information below. Then discuss your questions and concerns with your physician.

    Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    The fact is that STDs contracted during pregnancy can be life threatening. All women need to be aware of the potential consequences of sexually transmitted diseases, even before they are pregnant, so they can learn how to protect themselves and future children against STD infection.

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are relatively common during pregnancy. Education, screening, treatment, and prevention are important components of prenatal care for women at increased risk for these infections (Piper and colleagues, 2003). As a part of routine prenatal care, common STDs that are often sought include syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, hepatitis B, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and human papillomavirus infections (HPV) (Schrag and associates, 2003). The recommended treatment protocols adhere to the intensive and frequently updated schedules provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2002d). Treatment of most STDs is clearly associated with improved pregnancy outcome and prevention of perinatal mortality (Goldenberg and Thompson, 2003; Gray and colleagues, 2001).

    How can I find out if I have any STIs?
    Because it’s so important to spot and treat STIs during pregnancy, your practitioner will screen for many of these infections during your first prenatal visit. (Be sure to let her know about any STIs you’ve had in the past, too, or if you or your mate has more than one sexual partner.) If you’re at high risk for STIs, you’ll be screened again in your third trimester – or sooner, if you develop any STI symptoms during your pregnancy.

    If your practitioner doesn’t routinely offer tests for chlamydia, gonorrhea, hepatitis B, HIV, and syphilis, be sure to ask for them. Even if you’re not in a high-risk relationship now, some STIs can lurk in your body for years without symptoms, so you want to be sure you didn’t unknowingly contract one in the past.

    And if there’s any chance that you’ve been exposed to an STI during your pregnancy, or if you or your partner has any unusual symptoms, let your practitioner know right away so you can be retested. If you do have an STI, you’ll want to learn all you can about the risks and treatment options.

    How to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases During Pregnancy

    Hypertensive States of Pregnancy

    Hypertensive states in pregnancy include preeclampsia-eclampsia, chronic hypertension (either essential or secondary to renal disease, endocrine disease, or other causes), chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia, and gestational hypertension .

    Contraception for Adolescents

    Adolescents today represent a significant proportion of the world population .

    Endometriosis

    Endometriosis is a disorder in which abnormal growths of tissue, histologically resembling the endometrium, are present in locations .

    Delayed Puberty

    Developmental changes during puberty in girls occur.

    Urinary Incontinence

    Millions of women experience involuntary loss of urine called urinary incontinence (UI). Some women may lose a few drops .

    Medical conditions complicating pregnancy

    Complications of pregnancy are health problems .

    Teenage Pregnancy

    U.S. pregnancy rate among girls between 15 and 19 .

    Diabetes Mellitus & Pregnancy

    Diabetes mellitus, a clinical syndrome characterized by .

    How can I avoid getting an STI?
    The only sure way to avoid getting an STI is to abstain from sex completely (including vaginal, oral, and anal sex), or to have sex only with a partner you’re absolutely sure has sex only with you, doesn’t use intravenous drugs, and has a clean bill of health. If you’re not in that situation, here’s what you need to do:

    • Don’t have sex with anyone who has sores or symptoms of an STI, including a partner you believe to be faithful. If your partner has sex with other people, be sure to use latex condoms every time you have sex. These will reduce the risk of transmission of most STIs.
    • With a few exceptions, if you’re being treated for an STI, your partner also needs to be treated, and you should not have sex until you’ve both completed treatment and are symptom-free. Otherwise, you’ll just keep passing the infection back and forth.
    • If you’re at high risk for STIs, or if your partner or any member of your household is a hepatitis B carrier, be sure to get vaccinated against hepatitis B. This vaccine is safe to get during pregnancy.

    Consequences and Complications
    Approximately two million pregnant women are affected by sexually transmitted diseases or STDs during each year in the United States. Pregnancy offers no protection against sexually transmitted diseases leaving pregnant women vulnerable to the same STDs as women who are not pregnant. Sexually transmitted diseases can cause devastating consequences women who are not pregnant; the consequences of sexually transmitted diseases can be significantly more dangerous for pregnant women.

    The fact is that STDs contracted during pregnancy can be life threatening. All women need to be aware of the potential consequences of sexually transmitted diseases, even before they are pregnant, so they can learn how to protect themselves and future children against STD infection.

    Although the consequences of sexually transmitted diseases for pregnant women can be the same as for non-pregnant women; these consequences may have devastating effects that can lead to:

    • cervical cancer and other cancers,
    • chronic hepatitis,
    • cirrhosis,
    • other complications.

    Sadly, there are often no symptoms in women with sexually transmitted diseases and a woman may not be aware she is infected until she is already pregnant.

    Inflammatory diseases of small pelvis organs Most popular sexually transmitted diseases, – are clamidiosis and gonorrhoea. These infections can be very serious and become a reason of inflammatory diseases of pelvis organs, such as adnexitis. These diseases are very serious, as infection comes from external sexual organs and cervix of the uterus and affects Fallopian tubes and ovaries. As a result of inflammatory process, commissures are formed on tubes, embolism of tubes is also possible, what can lead to sterility. Moreover, this infection may contribute to development of abdominal pregnancy.

    How to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases During Pregnancy

    How to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases During Pregnancy

    The Ultimate Guides

    While I am sure I do not have to explain what sexually transmitted diseases are, some people are unaware of how they can affect pregnancy and fertility. Some sexually transmitted diseases can actually cause infertility if it goes untreated. Claim Your 20 Free Pregnancy Tests – Click Here

    As a refresher course, the main sexually transmitted diseases are:

    -HIV
    -Gonorrhea
    -Syphilis
    -Bacterial vanignosis
    -Chlamydia
    -Hepatitis
    -Herpes
    -Human papilloma virus
    -Trichomoniasis
    -Pelvic inflammatory disease

    You should get tested once a year if you are sexually active with multiple partners, or plan to conceive a child. Once pregnant your doctor should test for the basics in a blood test as well.

    Did you know that if you have a sexually transmitted disease and become pregnant that you can pass that disease on to your child? Or that some sexually transmitted diseases can cause you to have early labor? In some cases the disease can become deadly to mother and baby. It is important to know what you are dealing with prior to going in to a pregnancy.

    Speak with your doctor about your sexually transmitted disease prior to getting pregnant, if you can. Chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, trichomoniasis, and bacterial vaginosis may all be treated and cured with a simple antibiotic. Take the medication as directed, become “clean” and be prepared to become pregnant as a healthy woman.

    Chlamydia and Gonorrhea are the most commonly reported sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. In 2009 alone, there were a reported 1,244,180 chlamydia cases and 301,174 gonorrhea cases. These two are also what will mess with your fertility and make it more difficult, if not impossible, to become pregnant. When it comes to infertility, chlamydia and gonorrhea are the most preventable cause of infertility. Roughly 10-15% of women who have these will get pelvic inflammatory disease as well. According to science, chlamydia can cause severe infections of your fallopian tubes that you cannot feel, as there are no symptoms of that infection. This is known as a “silent” infection. That “silent” infection added to the pelvic inflammatory disease can cause permanent damage to your reproductive system. This permanently damaging your fertility.

    I actually have a string of the human papilloma virus myself. It was not passed along to my children during birth or pregnancy and it did not affect my fertility. Just be sure to speak with your doctor about what you have. He or she may have you follow through with medication, or if they feel it will not harm the baby, they may leave it as is until after birth. Not all sexually transmitted diseases can be treated during pregnancy.

    What are sexually transmitted diseases?

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that pass from one person to another during sex. They may also be called sexually transmitted infections, or STIs. Some of the more common STDs are chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes, crab lice, syphilis, HPV and genital warts, trichomonas, HIV (the virus that causes AIDS), and hepatitis A, B, and C. Some of these diseases are more dangerous than others. Some can make you very sick or cause death.

    You can have one of these diseases and not know it because you don’t have any symptoms and don’t feel sick. You can then spread the disease to sexual partners. Or you may know that you have an STD but are too embarrassed to talk about it with your sexual partner. Sexual partners can get the disease if you don’t practice safe sex every time.

    STDs can make it hard for you to get pregnant. They can also increase the risk that you will have a tubal pregnancy, which can be very dangerous. Some infections may increase the risk for early labor and premature birth. STDs can spread to your baby and cause the baby to have birth defects or die.

    What is the cause?

    Bacteria, viruses, and parasites cause STDs. They are usually passed between partners during sex. This includes vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, oral sex, skin-to-skin contact in the genital area, kissing, and the use of sex toys, such as vibrators. Hepatitis B and HIV can also spread through IV drug use

    Your baby can get an STD in the following ways:

    • The bacteria or viruses spread from you to the baby by passing through the placenta before birth. The placenta is the tissue inside the uterus attached to the baby by the umbilical cord. It carries oxygen and food from your blood to the baby’s blood.
    • After the bag of waters breaks during labor, the baby comes in contact with bacteria or viruses in and near the birth canal.
    • Your baby gets the infection from another infected baby in the nursery or from an infected adult who handles your baby with unwashed or ungloved hands.

    What are the symptoms?

    The symptoms depend on the type of STD. Some STDs may not cause symptoms until years after you are infected. Others may start within a few days. Symptoms may include:

    • Burning or pain when urinating
    • Unusual discharge from the vagina or penis
    • Itching, burning, or pain around the vagina, penis, or rectum
    • Rashes, sores, blisters, or painless growths around the vagina or rectum
    • Pain with sex
    • Sore throat
    • Vaginal bleeding between menstrual periods

    Some of the symptoms your baby might have are:

    • Sores or rash
    • Seizures
    • Tiredness
    • No appetite
    • Vomiting, fever, and irritability
    • Jaundice (skin that looks too yellow)
    • Breathing problems
    • Swelling of infected areas
    • Fever
    • Red eyes with pus

    Babies may also have an infection without any symptoms.

    How are they diagnosed?

    Your healthcare provider will ask about your symptoms and medical history and examine you. At your first prenatal visit, you will have tests for infection, such as blood or urine tests. You may have these tests again later in the pregnancy.

    To check for infection, your baby may have:

    • Blood tests
    • Samples of urine; spinal fluid; or discharge from the eyes, nose, mouth, or vagina taken for an exam
    • X-rays

    How are they treated?

    Some STDs can be cured with antibiotic medicine, especially when they are diagnosed and treated early. There is no cure for STDs caused by a virus, like herpes, HIV, HPV, and genital warts. However, treatment of these infections can lessen or avoid complications.

    If you have a herpes infection, you may be given medicine to treat the infection and to prevent it from coming back. If you have a herpes sore or a positive test for herpes when you go into labor, your healthcare provider may recommend a C-section. This can help keep the baby from getting infected during birth.

    An HPV infection during pregnancy usually does not need to be treated until after your baby is born. However, you will regularly have tests to see if the infection is getting worse.

    If you have an HIV infection, medicine will be given to you before the baby is born to help keep the baby from having AIDS.

    An infected baby must be treated because these infections could cause very serious problems or death. Treatment may include medicine and frequent checkups after the baby goes home. In some cases your baby may need to stay in the hospital for treatment.

    How can I take care of myself?

    Follow the full course of treatment prescribed by your healthcare provider.

    Tell everyone with whom you have had sex in the last 3 months about your infection. Or you can ask the clinic staff to tell them. They will not use your name. Your sexual contacts need to be treated even if they don’t have any symptoms.

    Don’t have sex until both you and your partner have finished all of the medicine and your healthcare provider says it’s OK. Then always use condoms every time you have sex.

    Ask your provider:

    • How and when you will hear your test results
    • What other STDs or STIs you should be tested for
    • How long it will take to recover
    • What activities you should avoid and when you can return to normal activities
    • When it is safe to start having sex again
    • How to take care of yourself at home
    • What symptoms or problems you should watch for and what to do if you have them

    Make sure you know when you should come back for a checkup.

    Sexually transmitted diseases are transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse and are highly infectious diseases. Unprotected sexual contact risks the lives of the young by afflicting with sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV infection and even unwanted pregnancy. Every year, nearly nineteen million cases of sexually transmitted diseases are reported in the United States alone and out of these, half of the cases involve people from the age group of fifteen years to twenty four years.

    The best way to make sure the adolescent doesn’t contract sexually transmitted diseases is to abstain from all types of sexual activities. In spite of this, if the adolescent becomes sexually active, he/she must be advised by the parents to take precautionary measures to reduce the risk of getting a sexually transmitted disease. The best precautionary measure is to use a condom every time the adolescent has sexual intercourse. Only when other sexually transmitted diseases are prevented and controlled, HIV infections can be prevented.

    It is best when the adolescent delays and abstains from sexual relationships, because the younger the person, the more susceptible he/she is to get a sexually transmitted disease. Having sexual contact during menstruation is also risky. It is good to avoid anal intercourse and if it is performed condom is a must, even when having oral sex. Every person should get STD checkups as frequently as possible, irrespective of being sexually active or not, after they turn into adolescents. Precaution must also be taken when getting injected by an intravenous drug, that the needle used to inject must be sterile. The adolescent must be educated about the symptoms and risks of sexually transmitted diseases.

    Adolescents must be thoroughly informed even if they say they know it all. They must be asked to indulge in only safe sex, if doing so. Parents should talk honestly and calmly about safe sex and must answer all their child’s queries. Topics such as STDs, birth control methods, having sex because of peer pressure, and date rape must be discussed in detail. Most people think that kissing is safe, but it can spread the sexually transmitted disease, herpes and many other diseases. Condoms do not provide hundred percent protections for genital warts, AIDs and genital warts. Females shouldn’t douche as it can make the infection go deeper into the reproductive tract and can also wash off spermicidal protection. At a time, sexual intercourse must be provided with only one partner, who isn’t involved with any other sexual partner.

    The sexually transmitted diseases are Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS, Human Papillomaviruses or HPVs, chlamydial infections, pelvic inflammatory disease or PID, Gonorrhea, Genital Herpes, syphilis, and genital warts. The symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases take time to surface. Some of them are also symptom less and even these diseases can be contagious. Especially in the case of female, the symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases can be confused with the symptoms of other diseases. But females get severe symptoms and get it more frequently. Sexually transmitted diseases can harm the fallopian tubes and uterus. It can even lead to inflammatory disease, which in turn can cause ectopic pregnancy or infertility. Cervical cancer, in females, can be associated to sexually transmitted diseases. If a female gets a sexually transmitted disease during her pregnancy, the disease can pass onto her child. Sometimes the newborn’s infections can be treated successfully, but at other times, the child can be disabled for life or die.

    If an adolescent is diagnosed with sexually transmitted diseases, his or her treatment must start immediately. The early the sexually transmitted diseases are diagnosed, the easier it is to treat them successfully. The other sexual partner must be informed so that they can get themselves diagnosed and can undergo treatment. The adolescent must be instructed to stay away from sexual activity while the treatment is going on. The checkup must be followed after the treatment. Tests such as pelvic examination, Pap test, and test for STDs should be taken periodically.

    Sexually transmitted diseases can affect people of all economic levels and backgrounds. Half of the cases of sexually transmitted diseases involve young people below the age of twenty five. The more sexually active the person is the more risk he/she is. And multiple sex partners at a given time are very dangerous too and must be strictly abstained from.

    Brian Levine, MD, MS, is board-certified in obstetrics and gynecology as well as in reproductive endocrinology and infertility.

    Having a sexually transmitted disease (STD), or sexually transmitted infection (STI) as they’re more often referred to in the medical community, during pregnancy can bring an increased risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery,​ and other complications.

    It’s also possible for an infection to pass to a baby in the womb or during labor. The exact risk varies by the type of STI and how well controlled it is during the pregnancy, along with other factors.  

    However, sexually transmitted infections can be managed to reduce or eliminate these risks. If you have an STI, or if you’re worried that you might, talk to a healthcare provider about treatment and prenatal care.

    How to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases During Pregnancy

    Syphilis

    All women should be tested for syphilis during pregnancy because it can be fatal for a baby, and it can also be transmitted from mother to child. Because there are several stages of the disease, some people with syphilis may not know that they are infected. Pregnant women with syphilis can be treated with penicillin to prevent mother-to-child transmission during labor and delivery.  

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in pregnancy can lead to miscarriage and stillbirth. It can also be passed from mother to baby. But today’s highly effective drugs can prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV and improve pregnancy outcomes. The use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) can now prevent transmission around 98% of the time.  

    As with syphilis, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that all women be tested for HIV in early pregnancy, regardless of whether they have risk factors.

    Viral Hepatitis

    The risk of viral hepatitis during pregnancy varies by the type of hepatitis. The viral strains common in the U.S. do not increase the risk of miscarriage, but babies can become infected in the womb or during labor.

    Hepatitis B and (much less commonly) hepatitis C can be passed from mother to baby during pregnancy. Because hepatitis B can be dangerous for babies, all newborns should be vaccinated against hepatitis B, regardless of whether or not their mother has a known infection.

    Babies born to mothers with hepatitis B must get the vaccine within 12 hours of birth. They also receive an immune globulin treatment to prevent a chronic hepatitis infection.​   Chronic hepatitis B infection does not often cause symptoms in newborns, but long-term chronic infections are a significant cause of serious complications like cirrhosis and liver cancer.

    Herpes

    Genital herpes may carry a risk of miscarriage, but research is inconclusive. While some studies have shown a greater risk, others have not, and herpes is a very common infection.   Currently, the CDC does not recommend screening pregnant women for herpes infection.

    Babies can acquire herpes if a mother contracts the infection during pregnancy or if active lesions are present at birth and the baby is delivered vaginally. Therefore, mothers with active lesions often need to deliver by cesarean section.   Mothers can also be prescribed an antiviral medication during the last month of pregnancy to prevent an outbreak   and allow for a vaginal delivery.

    Bacterial Vaginosis (BV)

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is an infection of the vagina caused by an overgrowth of certain types of bacteria. It is not actually a sexually transmitted infection but it can be associated with sexual activity. Bacterial vaginosis increases the risk of pregnancy problems including premature birth.

    Screening for BV is not routine during pregnancy,   so tell your healthcare provider if you experience symptoms including vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odor and itching or burning. This infection is easily treated in pregnancy with antibiotics.  

    Gonorrhea

    If untreated, gonorrhea can increase the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which can lead to damage to the fallopian tubes, ectopic pregnancy, and fertility problems. Gonorrhea can also increase the risk of:

    • Miscarriage
    • Premature rupture of membranes
    • Premature birth
    • Low-birthweight babies (babies who are small for gestational age)
    • Postpartum infection in the uterus  

    Gonorrhea may also be transmitted to the baby during birth. If untreated, it can result in infections of the eye, joints, and blood.  

    Asymptomatic infections are common, so doctors may screen for gonorrhea at an early prenatal appointment. Antibiotics can resolve the infection if it is present. It is also important to treat sex partners so that pregnant women do not get reinfected.

    Chlamydia

    Chlamydia is the most common sexually transmitted bacteria in the U.S., and like gonorrhea, it’s often present without symptoms. Still, it is not usually included in routine prenatal screening unless you have a risk factor (being under age 25 is a risk factor).  

    Chlamydia is associated with pregnancy complications including preterm labor, premature rupture of membranes, and low birth weight. Babies can also be exposed to the bacteria during delivery and develop eye and lung infections.   Chlamydia can be treated with antibiotics.  

    A Word From Verywell

    While having an infection of any kind during pregnancy can be scary, treatments are available for STIs, as well as other bacterial and viral infections. Check with your doctor or midwife anytime you have questions about your health or are experiencing symptoms that concern you.